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There’s a Russulaceae clade that contains all of the lactarii, and within that a smaller clade that contains Russula brevipes, some other large white russulas, and the white vase-shaped lactarii like Lactarius piperatus, as well as a clade that contains the bulk of the colorful lactarii.
http://www.mushroomexpert.com/russulaceae.html has a diagram and other information. The diagram labels the larger clade B, and gives no particular name to its two branches.
It’s likely that the white russulas from here, including R. brevipes, are really lactarii that lost the ability to produce latex.
What that says about whether this particular observation is a russula or a lactarius? That it may, in some sense, actually be both. :)
Could be either. Vase-shaped suggests Lactarius, but the flesh of the stipe suggests Russula, at least to me.
Can’t be sure, but pieces of what appear to be gill tissue near stipe suggest this specimen has been well eaten on by an animal. Try looking for truffles nearby, as voles are the most voracious fungal consumers I know of.