Collection location: Forest near Elgin St., Pembroke, Ontario, Canada [Click for map]
Nice horn-shaped apothecia on these. I found this species on fallen logs and other deadwood all over the forest. On one chuck of wood I found Cladonia cristatella, near where more was growing on the ground. I don’t know if this species is C. cristatella though; no red apothecia seen, except on that one chunk.
On one log covered with this stuff I also found an LBM (obs. 13062).
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Cladonia chlorophaea: always cupped, squamules without soredia, podetia granular (C. carneola has sorediate squamules, C. pyxidata has corticate podetia). Unfortunately this group contains an unknown number of species that I’m entirely unqualified to distinguish, anyway. I’m happy just to get this far, personally!
Cladonia coniocraea: large shallowly-lobed squamules without soredia, no cups or rarely very narrow cups, podetia arise from ~center of squamules, podetia finely powdery (C. ochrochlora has cortex on podetia, C. cornuta is really tall, C. gracilis ssp. gracilis has much smaller squamules and smooth corticate podetia)
Both are very common across Canada and northern US. And it’s not at all unusual to find multiple species of Cladonia growing together. Once I found 10-11 species in one 100-square-foot patch of mossy ground in North Carolina.