When: 2004-09-25

Collection location: Gotland, Sweden [Click for map]

Who: Irene Andersson (irenea)

No specimen available

Species Lists


Proposed Names

92% (2)
Recognized by sight

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


Add Comment
Gotland was definitely covered
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2008-11-07 13:54:05 MST (-0700)

I have been reading quite a lot about the ice age, and Gotland was covered completely and for a long time. The first parts that saw the light, were actually the high mountains along the coast in Norway.

About our pantherina, my experience is that the cap colour varies a lot, from this yellowish brown (not darkening much) to very dark brown. I usually recognize it rather easily by the small and dense, almost powdered, warts on the cap, often curled annulus and the well defined (sort of cut-off) margin of the volva.

Oh. Gotland is an island.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2008-11-07 11:38:14 MST (-0700)

OH! Gotland is an island! Excuse my poor geographic knowledge of Sweden. This makes your finds even more interesting to me. I have been working with Dr. Jozsef Geml (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks) on some island biogeography issues with species in the “muscarioid” group. We have seen distinct evidence of segregation of “molecular species” within the A. muscaria clade on an island about 40 km off the shore of southern California (USA). Here is a question of which, perhaps, you know the answer: When ocean levels were low during recent glaciations, was Gotland ice-covered or were there refugia of vegetation?


cap color…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2008-11-07 11:32:34 MST (-0700)


When the cap color is as pallid as this in young material of A. pantherina is it your experience that it darkens with age? Or that it remains pallid at maturity?

All of my European material of pantherina is much darker. The species called pantherina in western North America is, incidentally, a distinct species in my opinion.

Very best,