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Observation 148163: Agaricales sensu lato

Growing with native Hawaiian Flora. Convex to Shallowly depressed 10-25mm diameter pileus. Purple overall (18F6-18D5)

Stipe: 20-25mm height, even to sub-bolbus base 2-4mm width, concolorous to pileus. Fibrous but not overtly twisted fibrous.

odor/taste: none or slightly like “purple cool-aid” Pavlovian association with purple.

Basal tomentum white.

color key from Methuen Handbook of Colour

Species Lists


In Situ
In Situ
Spores n mesurements
Basidia with clamp connection
Tramal tissue from gill
4 spored basidia
Clamp conn. Stipe

Proposed Names

63% (3)
Recognized by sight
-34% (4)
Recognized by sight
28% (1)
Recognized by sight
19% (4)
Used references: Baroni, TJ (1982). Tricholosporum and Notes on Omphaliaster and Clitocybe. Mycologia 74(6): 865-871.
30% (2)
Used references: Dr. Dennis Desjardin
56% (1)
Recognized by sight

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


Add Comment
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2021-03-24 01:56:13 EDT (-0400)
Thanks for asking Dennis
By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2013-10-16 17:51:58 EDT (-0400)

If any has some good ideas on something like this it would be him!

The Baroni paper seems to clearly state that Hygroaster sensu stricto (sensu Baroni perhaps?) has divergent lamellar trama… Though seems to state that there are multiple concepts of Hygroaster and Omphaliaster so maybe that is where the lamellar trama differences come from.

Either way without the pseudocystidia and the other differences it is definitely not O. ianthinocystis and probably not an Omphaliaster. (dangit! ;) ). Though some of the boreal clampless Omphaliasters seem to grow on moss in grasslands as far as I can tell.

I cant wait to hear what comes of some further investigation.

-Joshua Birkebak

from Dennis:
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-16 17:20:21 EDT (-0400)

“Danny Newman showed me a photo of it last night at the MSSF meeting. I immediately thought Hygroaster; he suggested Omphaliaster but I have never seen that genus.

Hygroaster species have: subglobose to globose spores with large rounded spines, inamyloid, acyanophilous; basidia length >5 times length of spores; lack hymenial cystidia; subregular hymenophoral trama (not divergent); vacuolar pigments; lack clamp connections; in mineral soil and humus in wet tropical/neotropical forests.

Omphaliaster has similar spores; basidia length 4-4.5 times length of spores; conspicuous “pseudocystidia” with pigmented contents; regular hymenophoral trama; parietal pigments; clamp connections; on rotting wood.

A thorough microscopic analysis is needed; and sequences to see if it matches any Hygroaster species. I don’t know is any sequences of Omphaliaster are available.

Singer’s description of Omphaliaster ianthinocystis shows a smaller species with a tiny stipe (6 × 1 mm) that is fuscous.

Lynx’s microphotos do not clearly show clamps are reported; his hymenophoral trama is subregular and pleurocystidia are absent. Personally, I’d lean towards a purple Hygroaster although none have been described to date. Without seeing the material, that’s about all I can provide.
Dennis D."

No Dice
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-16 13:57:55 EDT (-0400)

Found not a single Cystidium, pseudo or otherwise. The measurements for most all of the Microscopic features (spores, tramal hyphae, basidia) mentioned in the Boroni paper are just a bit off. Stained a section of gill with Melzer’s, not amyloid, but it did give a good shape of the spore as it didn’t get picked up by the excrescences.The tissue of the gill and pileus picked up the Melzer’s as a deep brown but I wouldn’t call it an dextrinoid reaction or anything. Nothing turned the “striking” purple or whatever language he uses. Pretty much everything turned hyline in KOH. I think we are sorta on the right track I see what I can find concerning Hygroaster furthur. Will double check on some margin tissue but am seeing nada for cystidia.

Molecular Data
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-15 16:41:08 EDT (-0400)

Else and Joshua, It is possible to get sequence data for this. I’m hopefully going to be going through my collections and pulling out a number taxa and do extractions with them. I am waiting probably a couple week-2 months in order to take advantage of the rainy season that has just started up to collect a few more things and am trying to get good samples of the Galerina up there in order to give a more complete picture of what I am finding in my sites. Also the taxa seem to be across the board from California species to things from New Zealand. It seems like a mixed bag, similar to the flora that have populated the Islands, but it is hard to say really.

I would not be surprised…
By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2013-10-15 13:55:34 EDT (-0400)

If this were not closely related to Omphaliaster from the boreal regions or to anything in any other genus for that matter! Could be but this thing looks unlike any genus I have ever heard of. Some sequence data would be awesome ;).

Though here is a question: Is the mycoflora of Hawaii more closeley related to new world or old world tropics? It seems with the trade winds you would expect a neotropical or neosubtropical flora. (Just curious!)

Nice to meet you Lynx! Greetings from the good ole Appalachian Mountains! I myself am a transplant from Seattle but have been here for a good five or so years and love it! Where parts do you hail from? And I would always love to see any Clavariaceae from Hawaii! Bring em on!

Taxonomic placement
By: else
2013-10-15 11:16:14 EDT (-0400)

Singer (1986) was not convinced that Omphaliaster was the correct genus for this species (which he described as a Rhodocybe) and he put it in Asproinocybe – leaving Omphaliaster as a genus with boreal distribution. That does not seem to be a good fit either (the other species are from the old world tropics) – so it would be great to get more information from this find than just a name – is it possible to get DNA sequence data from it?

i’ve got it
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-15 03:57:24 EDT (-0400)

but thanks. looking forward to more posts and taxonomic gumshoeing!

By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-15 03:53:46 EDT (-0400)

Just downloaded the paper, do you have a copy already Danny or do you want one? Joshua good work and Blue Ridge Represent! I am a Appalachian boy myself! Any interest in looking a some Clavariaceae(in theory) found in my study site?
I will scope tomorrow and try to post a couple more fun collections if I have any decent pics!

nice work, Shua
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-15 01:19:37 EDT (-0400)

I’m wondering how I poked around literature covering Tricholosporum, Mycenella and ornamented Clitocybe and managed to miss this one. O. ianthinocystis does look like a pretty solid fit, provided that minor spore size discrepancy isn’t an issue, and Lynx is able to locate these “impressive pseudocystidia” mentioned in the Baroni paper.

Hello Joshua
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-14 20:50:16 EDT (-0400)

Thanks for the interest and suggestion. So far I found zilch on the cystidia front, but will pull apart a bit more of my collection and scope it again once I get back to school tomorrow. Still processing Suillus currently:-/ Will keep yall posted and try to put some more micrographs up.

By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2013-10-14 19:06:20 EDT (-0400)

is you google “Omphaliaster ianthinocystis” not much comes up, but the first image has an SEM of the spores in the upper right hand corner (which look ok atleast).

This name is hopefully at least close to what you have collected. On closer examination the spores seem a bit bigger in yours than in the type study by Baroni.

Hello all
By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2013-10-14 19:00:54 EDT (-0400)

Omphaliaster was the first name to jump into my head. Upon a quick search I found the name O. ianthinocystis which sounded promising as your lamellae look to be purple marginate (presumably from purple cycstidia like the name suggests). It seems to match pretty decently but I have not even remote experience with this species. It was published from Argentina by Singer in the 50’s.

As for Hygroaster apparently (learning this as I go…) has long (Hygrophoroid basidia), no pseudocystidia, and divergent lamellar trama. From what I can tell your lemellar trama looks parallel to subparallel (like for omphaliaster). Did you see any cystidia under the microscope? It looks like it has some purple cystidia atleast on the margin.

This is a freakin awesome mushroom btws!

else and Lynx…
By: Richard Kneal (bloodworm)
2013-10-14 17:54:55 EDT (-0400)

i think there was a miscommunication.
i did not think the mushrooms were contaminated after they were collected…

i guess i should have said, tuberculate macroconidium…
which, i thought might have come from the surrounding soil of the mushrooms.

photo 4 does show some “suspect” mycelium…

By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-14 04:54:17 EDT (-0400)

I am pretty sure the slide was not contaminated the specimen was fresh and mature but not old. I was putting about 6 other specimen on slides in the same time period none with these ornamented spores other than this collection. Thanks everyone for the effort and interest so far. Else I like the idea on the Hygroaster, As you probably know we have a number of native species that fall under the genus Hygrophoraceae, and when I first saw this collection I thought “Purple Hygrocybe?” Would you know if there is a decent key out there concerning these taxa? I also was out collecting today (for pleasure..ignoring my study site as I drove past) and picked up some (should be) legitimate Laccaria out of a grove of introduced Monterey Pine and will try and scope them tomorrow afternoon so I can appreciate the true look of these spores…incidentally I also collected 50+ lbs of suillus! I am now trying to track down as many dehydrators as possible. Also I don’t want to hear any sh@# about collection slippery jacks, beggars can’t be choosers out here on the rock…I also secretly love the slimy bastards.

Histoplasma is an ascomycete
By: else
2013-10-13 20:56:18 EDT (-0400)

and its spores are globose. these spores are NOT globose, and are asymmetrical – hallmarks of basidiospores.

what about Hygroaster – a tropical genus in the Hygrophoraceae with ornamented spores?

By: Richard Kneal (bloodworm)
2013-10-13 16:04:23 EDT (-0400)

i don’t see that all.
i do not see any of those spores attached to basidia.

the spores sitting on the hymenium have just attatched themselves there because they had nowhere to go…

i had a a problem with mold spores last year…
after mounting the slide, the mold spores would float around and attatch themselves to whatever was in the way…

the same reason you will sometimes get spores clumped together…

its looks to me like the spores attached to the basidia in photos 6 & 7 might be different.

an interesting thought
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-13 15:55:19 EDT (-0400)

but these spores are the same as those still attached to the basidia, not those of a contaminant/infection.

i might be wrong…
By: Richard Kneal (bloodworm)
2013-10-13 15:12:20 EDT (-0400)

but, the mushroom looks remarkably similar to Mycena pura and those spores look remarkably similar to Histoplasma capsulatum spores.

Ahhh the oft mentioned and elusive Else Villenga
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-13 03:49:16 EDT (-0400)

Hello Ms. Villenga! I have heard much about you but have not had the pleasure of meeting you yet. I work under Dr. Brian Perry. I’ve heard both Don and Brian speak of you often and I think you and Jes once baby-sat a wayward hippy wild-child at the Quincy Mushroom Festival maybe? Any thoughts on the right direction to be looking for this lovely purple fiend? Now that I know you are on here I am tempted to post the tiny Lepiota-esq fruiting bodies that I find up in my study site as well.
Nice to virtually meet you:-)
as Danny says “yours in spores”
Lynx Gallagher

not Laccaria spores
By: else
2013-10-13 01:44:17 EDT (-0400)

these are just not Laccaria spores. Laccaria spores have pointed spines, not this type of excrescences.
and i have looked at 1000s of Laccaria spores, i know what they look like.

By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-13 01:35:33 EDT (-0400)

I will get back on it Monday, will spend my sunday collecting a metric ton of slippery jac….I mean lemon Boletes up on mauna kea. The only edible taxa found in any abundance on big island.

have been searching
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-13 01:25:41 EDT (-0400)

for agaric genera with white, warted/nodulose/ornamented spores, and am coming up with little outside of Russulaceae, Melanoleuca, some Clitocybe/Lepista, Ripartitella, Fayodia, Mycenella and Laccaria. I am also away from my books. Will return to this one tomorrow.

haha yep
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-13 01:14:12 EDT (-0400)


pileus 10-250mm?
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-13 01:08:02 EDT (-0400)

is this a typo?

By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-13 01:02:03 EDT (-0400)

Finally belittled myself away from the lab I will try to scope with some on monday! thanks Danny. Will also try to get some pileus context and pileipellis micro pics up.

ditto Lynx.
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2013-10-13 00:39:18 EDT (-0400)

would like to hear from Else as well.

in the meantime, try a Melzer’s mount, just for kicks.

To Else
By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-12 23:51:59 EDT (-0400)

Any constructive opinions concerning this collection, why such supreme doubt? Other theories?

By: Lynx Gallagher (Lynx)
2013-10-12 21:18:58 EDT (-0400)

Any thoughts on another Genus with similar stature and Spiny Spores?