Observation 161364: Clavariaceae sensu lato

White coral fungi growing in substrate.(poor soil, stones and some river gravel.)



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Daniel B.

Thankyou for the excellent info. I will use it plus expand on the growing habitat in future. We do have some say “out-of-the-ordinary” finds here.
I have just received notification of a find, that is unrecorded, and is being listed. (one of the Corts.) Insert:
[Hi Ian,

Your mushroom matches sequences in the C. violaceus group that are found in Tasmania with Eucalyptus and Allocasurina and in New Zealand with Leptospermum. I took light microscopy photos of the spores and scanning electron microscope pictures of the spores and they are not calyptrate, which rules out C. subcalyptrosporus. It turns out that C. austroviolaceus is not even in the C. violaceus group, even though it is deep purple. However it doesn’t have pleurocystidia and almost all of the collections are caespitose. C. atrolazulinus was described from New Zealand with Nothofagus, not Myrtaceae so I’m ruling that out. It fits the description of C. atroviolaceus but Brandon doesn’t think Myrtaceae grows in Sabah where it was described, so I’m ruling that out (Moser didn’t say what the host was in Sabah). I am going to go ahead and describe the species. Do you have a name for it that you would like? I was thinking of something like regaloviolaceus (royal violet cort; I have to learn the rules of latin to get the spelling right)


On Thu, Aug 1, 2013 at 7:59 PM, Ian Dodd (kk) wrote:

Emma, Thanks for the update. As you know, you never can tell what I will turn up with. The saga continues, Oz always has it’s own surprises..
Kind regards,

Original Message——- From: Emma Harrower
Sent: Friday, August 02, 2013 12:52 AM
To: kundabungkid
Subject: Re: Cort Dried Specimen

DNA confirmed that its not Cortinarius austroviolaceus. It is still
likely an undescribed species. I will let you know what else we do
with the specimen.


I do usually state if the situation is different from on wood or leaf matter etc. I will keep in mind your advise and assistance. Many thanks, it is appreciated. I am a novice, self taught and work in remote areas by myself, and apart from M.O. do not have any real support.(except for the wonderful MO .) I have been in touch with “The Truffle Lady” from FungiMap, and in contact with the Brisbane Botanical Gardens to provide specimens. Unfortunately I do not have any support from these people like I always receive from members of MO!.

You are welcome, Ian.
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2014-03-17 01:12:28 AEDT (+1100)

Your source seems slightly out-of-date, although that certainly fits here. The problem is how to separate fungi growing from cellulose (like straw or wood chips) and those growing directly from soil. Also, your source negates the mycorrhizal aspect of fungi. Some are extremely specific as to what trees or shrubs they will associate with. Noting potential hosts will limit what the fungus may (or may not) be.

European and English versions negate mycorrhizal relationships. Thus host plants of truffles are often left out. These fungi could be construed as having a rudimentary stipe or stalk “from which the organisms lives, grows, or obtains it nourishment.” But the purpose of the stipe or stalk is often obscurred since the fungus can be sequestrate and rely on other means for spore dispersal (i.e. animal mycophagy). Thus sequestrate hypogeous fungi are left out.

Dr. James Trappe has been doing much research north of this site along the rainforest, I believe. Dr. Teresa Label has been working on it as well. In the 1990’s, Dr. Jim took several grad students to Australia to explore hypogeous fungi (which aren’t hypogeous in Australia.) In a two week period they found some 300 new species there. Some of the fungi were growing on the sides of trees 30 meters up the trunk! Probably that is an adaptation for the extreme rainfall and lack of nutrients.

Some of the rare or endangered Australian animals have been shown to predate on these sequestrate fungi, spreading the spores in their feces. This also shows what these animals have been eating on.

The wet and windy NE coast of Australia has some unique environmental adaptations: i.e. earthworms that live in tree tops. Makes the Pacific NW’s plethora of fungal-eating animals rather common by comparison. I’m glad we don’t have your 200+ mph wind shear from typhoons to deal with.


Thanks for the input and info. Still endeavouring to give descriptive definitions to finds and local and habitat. So a m’room growing on the forest floor and not attached to a root would be recorded as?………. Just so I can get it right next time. Appreciate any assistance offered. Always open to comment. Definition I was using reads: The surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment:
‘brachiopods attached to the substrate by a stalk’ . Now not sure how to describe host.
Again ta, kk

I think
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2014-03-15 23:17:40 AEDT (+1100)

you may be confused over the word substrate, Ian.

Substrate is what a mushroom grows from, such as agar, wood, straw, sawdust, corpse, compost, bark, etc. It is applied to saprophytic fungi, like Pleurotus.

Fungi that grow on soil (literally feces) are terrestrial and may be symbiotic, like Clavariaceae. Most plants cannot survive without symbiotic or mycorrhizal fungi. The English still refer to this as “infection”, a curious term for a fifth requirement for growing plants (the others are air, water, soil and light).

Dr. James Trappe has noted trees without mycorrhizal fungi are forest relics. They are most easily identified by the lack of leaves and/or chlorophyll, and typically support masses of saprophytic fungi within a year of death.

Created: 2014-03-15 16:37:54 AEDT (+1100)
Last modified: 2014-04-04 19:19:26 AEDT (+1100)
Viewed: 35 times, last viewed: 2017-06-18 16:01:11 AEST (+1000)
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