When: 2014-03-12

Collection location: Grizzly Peak Blvd., Berkeley, California, USA [Click for map]

Who: Nimmo (barky)

No specimen available

Members of the A. vaginata group, possibly A. protecta or A. pachycolea, found by R. Kajikawa.
Rusty discolorations of universal veil may indicate A. pachycolea?

Growing with Monterey pine, averaging 7-8".

Sorry no herbarium specimens available.


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I suspect
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2017-01-05 09:31:53 PST (-0800)

Nimmo was confused about which sections in Amanita actually contain those haemolysins. Turns out, even the haemolysins that are found in members of Amanita section Validae (the blushers) become neutralized at low pH and temperatures over 95 degrees F., both conditions which are conveniently already found in our stomachs.

I do recommend cooking all mushrooms thoroughly, however, more from a digestibility standpoint. And almost everyone prefers the taste of caramelized mushrooms!

To my knowledge, none of the caesars nor any of the grisettes contain any known toxins, nor are there any reliable reports of poisonings after their ingestions. Of course, both grisettes and caesars are commonly eaten around the world, and even sometimes right here in fungiphobic NA!

We have a particularly rich trove of excellent edible (and never toxic) amanitas here in the West, ones which are well worth the time it takes to safely ID them for the table.

A vegetable dehydrator of the sort Sears used to sell on about the medium setting…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-27 20:24:05 PDT (-0700)

will do very well. Don’t put something delicate like a species of sect. Vaginatae on the bottom try. Put a few extra trays above the ones with specimens to create a chimney-like draft. Waiting too long to dry material can of this section can cause the tissues of the gills to collapse in a way that can’t be reversed easily. Drying at too high a temperature can destroy DNA.

So it is something of a balancing act, and you probably have to learn the behavior and performance of your individual dryer. So experiment a little bit, and don’t expect that you will have everything working optimally before you have made several tries with specimens of different proportions.

Cutting specimens in halve (top to bottor) or quarters speeds drying and allows you to measure stem length, stem width, cap thickness, etc. on a flat surface…a significant advantage.

If you’d like some notes on drying and collecting, Cristina and I have a little booklet that we can send you if you email me with your email address.

Very best,


Looks like I’d need a good dehydrator
By: Nimmo (barky)
2014-03-27 19:36:50 PDT (-0700)

is that what you’d recommend?

I guess even then maybe it’s tricky.

section Vaginatae
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-27 12:31:46 PDT (-0700)

The Vaginatae have not been studied carefully and in detail anywhere in the world. There are plentiful undescribed species of the section all around us. It doesn’t help that some of them don’t fruit very often. Also, they are so frustrating to deal with that people don’t collect them very much. The species with names need to be carefully studied. The names need to be connected with DNA sequences so that the names will have some meaning to those who know genes, but not organisms. This is the real work that needs to be done right away as is emphasized in the North American Mycoflora project activities.

We are trying to get DNA sequences from types, but sometimes we have no luck. The Vaginatae are fragile in many ways, it appears.

Material of sect. Vaginatae is always of interest to me if it is well and carefully dried and documented with images (and, one can always hope!) written notes on dimensions, etc.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Do you have the bibliographic citations for the reports of hemolysines in grisettes?
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-27 12:18:16 PDT (-0700)

I’d like to know who is working on that subject.

At present, there are folks that have contacted me about amanitins, phalloidins, and the toxic aminoacids in species such as Amanita smithiana and other lepidellas (e.g., allenic norleucine in smithiana). However, I don’t have a contact doing a survey of hemolysines in Amanita or any subgroup of the genus. That would be very interesting to know about..

A contact person would be great.

Very best,


By: Nimmo (barky)
2014-03-27 11:36:48 PDT (-0700)

Sorry, Rod! I didn’t suspect an undescribed species in A. vaginata group could make an appearance around here, with so many mycologists about. I would have saved you a sample. I have found them in spots like this around Vollmer Peak every year.

They are truly delicious though. “Edible and choice,” as the guidebooks would say. I was careful to cook them very thoroughly due to the documented possible presence of hemolysines in grisettes.

I think that this is likely to be an undescribed species.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-27 09:31:48 PDT (-0700)

Very best,


Created: 2014-03-26 16:14:30 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2014-03-27 11:41:18 PDT (-0700)
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