Three similar fungi growing together in forest soil with leaf litter. Had difficulty in drying these specimens also. Not sure if it was because saved during rain, (so specimens wet), and extreme humidity, at time of find. Still in dryer?


Rod, General view of the "lower " area of Yarrahapinni. The area the species was located in was higher up the mountain in a Eucalyte Forest section of the State Forest.

Proposed Names

29% (1)
Recognized by sight
26% (3)
Recognized by sight
48% (2)
Based on microscopic features: Inamyloid, spores matching those from the type study of Gilbert (1940-41).
91% (2)
Based on chemical features: nrITS and nrLSU show extensive match to sequences obtained from original concept-defining collection

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


Add Comment
You’re welcome, Ian.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-22 19:39:26 EEST (+0300)



As always, my thanks go to you. We have had more rain and my last visit to the mountain collection was limited, due to the spoiling wet overnight conditions. Will be loading some images in the next day or two.

Dear Ian,
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-21 17:00:57 EEST (+0300)

Thank you for your enlightening material. I am very glad that this collection clarifies the cap coloring and the genetics of this interesting species.

Very best,


We have extraordinary quality in nrITS and nrLSU sequences.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-21 16:59:28 EEST (+0300)

This is thanks to Dr. Kudzma’s experimentation with improved methods of getting a a long, high quality sequence running from the end of the small subunit gene through the “proposed fungal barcode” gene and nearly 1500 characters into the large subunit gene. The new sequence is a great improvement over what we were able to obtain from the sequences from MO 197641, which clearly had its pigment washed out by rain.

The reason that I have not retained the mcalpiniana suggestion as primary is simply that I haven’t had the time to work up the material in sufficient detail to justify use of that name. So, the conservative thing to do is to retain the temporary code for this taxon as far as our MO interaction is concerned. Transparency.

Parcel Post and area image added.

Hope to post today Rod.(15th.) Waiting on reply from Richard Kneal for his mailing address. (Not a full postal address in his MO profile.)

Collection site

Rod, The Yarrahapinni State Forest that these species were located in was once logged, but is now a protected State Forest. I believe Cedar was the main attraction to the early loggers. The Forest is mainly Eucalypt with Blacbbutt, Spotted Gum, and most of the general common eucalypte species. In the general section I haunt, which is some distance from the “Pines site” (which was a loggers camp and when logging was discontinued, native Hoop Pines were planted and White Gums.(Flood Gums)) . {Hence the naming “The Pines”}
The fungi in mention, were about half way down the mountain in a semi rainforest section, consisting mainly of. (Eucalyptus). The soil is of a red colour, generally wet and sticky especially in the Fungi season. The general GPS location is : E 152 degrees. 60’
S 30 degrees 47’
The find was not close to or near “The Pines” planted area. (Hoop Pines).
Some of the other sections I visit in this locale are full rainforest growth crisscrossed with fresh water creeks.
Some Local Area descriptions and extracts from these are: FYI,

Drive to Yarrahapinni Mountain, marvel at unparalleled views of the entire Macleay Valley Coast from the top (498m-high). Make sure you stop at the enchanting Pines Picnic Area halfway down the mountain where you can be amongst the spectacular towering candle and flood gums as well as hoop pines.
30 km round trip explores the blackbutt forests and
riverside rainforests on Way Way Creek. Allow at least 2 hours,
with time for a short walk and a detour to the spectacular lookout
on Mt Yarrahapinni. See how a long history of careful forestry
management in the area has promoted a patchwork of forest ages
with natural regeneration. Take a break at The Pines Picnic Area,
bordered by tall plantations of native hoop pines planted in the
1930s. Take the Way Way Creek Forest Walk from The Pines -
look up into the rainforest canopy to see ferns, lianas and orchids.
Climb the steep, winding 4 km Tower Road to the Mt
Yarrahapinni fire tower and lookout – views stretch from Crescent
Head to Coffs Harbour and inland to the Great Divide.

I’ve tried to work up as much macroscopic data as I could from your photos.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-14 19:30:24 EEST (+0300)

It is all posted on the technical tab here:

I haven’t finished the spore work up (and hope to do that today).

Can you tell me anything about the major trees in the forest near the collecting site?

Very best,


Comment and Thanks!

Rod, Wonderful summary.( I will read the summaries.)
Thankyou for spending the time for me. The great thing with MO is the fact that the information is archived for referral any time in the future. Your "Bundle " is being posted next Monday 14th. (hopefully). Please excuse the delay as I have had an extremely busy period. I would also appreciate after I load the new lot of finds if you would check them and if you would like any of this new lot in the “bundle” let me know, (either way), before I post.I have about 50 tagged and dried specimens to put in trays. We have had a category 5 cyclone on our Queensland North Coast, Cooktown, and Cairns area, of which we always get the aftermath. So, I have been busy in my usual haunts before everything becomes “scrambled eggs”. Drier works magic. Hope to load today, Sunday, 13th. Finding some amazing specimens at the moment after a long dry spell.

WAO reference pages… EDITED…1 web page name changed because of today’s thinking
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-12 22:07:34 EEST (+0300)
Thanks again, Ian.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-12 21:44:27 EEST (+0300)

This was a real treat. I sure hope we can extract DNA from this specimen. The drying looks good.


This material matches the original description of A. mcalpiniana, …EDITED
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-12 21:37:52 EEST (+0300)

which has been treated as a form of A. austropulchella or A. xanthocephala since 1940. The change in rank (to form) was proposed by Gilbert in his “Amanitaceae” (published 1940-41).

On the WAO site I’ve argued that the name “xanthocephala” may have been applied to two different species (possibly starting with Reid’s monograph on Australian amanitas in 1980). Reid’s type study of A. xanthocephala shows the more ellipsoid spores while Reid’s type study of A. austropulchella describes spores that are larger and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid.

Amanita xanthocephala was originally described from Western Australia and A. austropulchella was originally described from Victoria.

Reid’s non-type material conforms with austropulchella. Information provided to me by Heino Lepp (from eastern material) also conforms with austropulchella. Hence, although I still would like more data and information on genetic data, I’m inclined to think that austropulchella and xanthocephala could be distinct taxa.

Now for mcalpiniana. The type is probably lost with the rest of Gilbert’s herbarium. (My reasons for thinking this are given on WAO.) We then must operate from the original description and the spore data obtained from the type by Gilbert (five scale drawings of spores in the first volume of his “Amanitaceae”).

Given this information, there is no conflict with the data available from this observation of Ian’s.

I am very interested in material from anywhere in Australia that may represent xanthocephala, austropulchella, or mcalpiniana.

If somebody else is following up on this line of reasoning, then I’d like to know about the progress of their research.

I think this comment describes an interesting little challenge that is contained in scope and would be fun to attack.

I’ve tried to go over this for typos, but I fear I have missed some. Please tell me about them if you find them.

Very best,


The dried specimen associated with this observation has been received. Thank you, very much.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-12 19:22:52 EEST (+0300)

Thanks, Ian. Couldn’t wait to get into this one…and…amazingly I have time because I am waiting to hear from someone with regard to today’s “A item.”

The spores are inamyloid. The stipe appears not to be totally elongating (evidence is the basal bulb). Hence, this species belongs in sect. Amanita.

The spores I’ve seen in a quick look have a rather low Q (length/width ratio) and are subglobose to broadly ellipsoid.

More when I know more.

I wanted you to know that your box arrived. The exceptional packing [:)] kept the specimens in good condition. After their travel, they need a little re-drying, which is normal for material traveling for about two weeks.

Thank you very much.

Very best,



Rod, Morning here at the moment 0630am. When I have daylight (in about an hour) {daylight saving here at the moment, real time 0530}.
I will be going through the dried specimens and doing a final check. I will get back to you later today and update you on what I am preparing for posting. Kind regards, kk

How did the drying turn out?
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-31 16:21:52 EEST (+0300)



Have to agree Rod. No opposition from this quarter.

They are beautiful.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-03-31 07:10:03 EEST (+0300)


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