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I use “volva” for all parts of the universal veil wherever they are found. HEAVILY EDITED.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-10 14:45:16 -03 (-0300)

I follow Bas in this usage.

I would not suggest restricting the word volva for use only with limbate or saccate universal veils. The form of this part of anatomy (the initial protective covering of the primordium) changes depending on the internal civil engineering (percentage of hyphae as opposed to percentage of inflated cells, orientation of these elements with relation to the tissue immediately below them on the cap, and whether the cap has a gelatinizing skin or not).

In this case, I’d describe the volval remnants on the stem as something like " rings of closely placed warts encircling the top of the bulb, white" and separately described the warts on the cap. It’s important to distinguish the color of the volva from the color of substrate that may be left on its surface.

Have you decided whether there is a case for placement in sect. Lepidella or in sect. Validae … or somewhere else?

Very best,


I did mean to…
By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2014-04-10 14:23:30 -03 (-0300)

But I may be using it incorrectly (or at least differently from yours).
What I mean is that the UV at the base of the stipe is not a distinct
sac with a free edge. And I don’t ever use volva to refer to the UV on the cap, but maybe that’s just a semantic hangup that I learned.

As for lack of reddening – yes, that is a consistent character for my understanding of this taxon.

Very interesting, Christian.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-04-10 14:15:54 -03 (-0300)

Please keep me up to date on this entity.

Do you really mean to say “indistinct” with regard to the volva? I think I see volva on the cap and on the bulb. Is the lack of reddening a constant character?

Very best,


Created: 2014-04-10 14:05:42 -03 (-0300)
Last modified: 2016-01-11 16:00:35 -02 (-0200)
Viewed: 68 times, last viewed: 2019-07-12 08:13:40 -03 (-0300)
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