When: 2014-04-25

Collection location: Adams Co., Pennsylvania, USA [Click for map]

Who: Dave W (Dave W)

No specimen available

On humus of well decayed stump.

A few spores dropped overnight. When mounted in KOH no apiculi observed. So then I thought, “Disciotis.” But spores for D. venosa lack oil droplets, and the spores from this collection appear to feature multiple oil droplets. Looked at some Peziza descriptions, but spores in all examples lacked oil droplets. So I read Kuo’s description of D. ancilis again (Gyromitra perlata), and noted that the apiculi are best seen using a water mount. So I scraped a bit of material onto a slide and mounted in water. Managed to focus upon a spore still encapsulated inside an ascus which I believe exhibits an apiculus. Other spores inside asci also showed apiculi in the water mount, but it was difficult to obtain desirable focus. Micro in water mount also shows what appear to be paraphyses with an orangish color.

Spore length 28-34 mu.

I know… my scope is not so great, but I do get some info from it. Awaiting a new model.

Laid the fruit bodies out in hopes of getting another spore drop.


mounted in water
spore drop mounted in KOH
spore drop mounted in KOH
Spore which dropped, mounted in water.

Proposed Names

87% (1)
Recognized by sight
Based on microscopic features: See notes

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= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


Add Comment
Yeah Phil. That’s another interesting thing.
By: Dave W (Dave W)
2014-04-27 22:31:01 EDT (-0400)

The small oil droplets seem to have disappeared in the water mount. Maybe this is a function of spore maturity?… the small oil droplets? Or maybe the droplets appearance is enhanced by the KOH?

Water mounts
By: Phil Yeager (gunchky)
2014-04-27 17:39:15 EDT (-0400)

clearly show apiculi but seems to blur the oil droplets which are more clearly seen in KOH. KOH and NH4OH swell cells close to their original size. Maybe H2O causes them to swell more? Don’t know. The latter chemicals are supposed to enable one to view spore ornamentation, therefore one would assume that apiculi would be readily viewed when mounted in them. More questions than answers. Perhaps Kuo used Ethanol so that water would be absorbed into the spores?

Last posted photo…
By: Dave W (Dave W)
2014-04-27 10:32:23 EDT (-0400)

with caption “Spore which dropped, mounted in water” clearly shows the pointed apiculi associated with D. anclius (formerly D. perlata). Why does this photo show a feature not observed in the two spore photos with spore (dropped) mounted in KOH? Some potential explanations (brainstorms):

1. Spores originally dropped were immature. Descriptions in guide suggest apiculi develop as spores mature.
2. KOH obliterated the apiculi. Kuo mentions that water mounting seems to offer some advantage here.
3. Confusion with spores from a collection of some other species. I did bring home some Gyromitra korfii, which I did not examine microscopically. But photos of G. korfii spores available in references also show apiculi (not pointed).

Phil, look at Kuo’s micro photo as seen in the link provided.
By: Dave W (Dave W)
2014-04-26 20:29:00 EDT (-0400)

Link is in last comment. Kuo’s photo makes this very clear. There’s a clearly elliptical body of the spore, and the pointed apiculi add on to the ellipse to give it the spindle shape.

When viewing my “water mount” photo, you need to zoom and focus on the one spore inside the ascus which is completely visible. Other spores I viewed in the water mount showed the projections. The one provided was the clearest example.

I have no idea why the apiculi are not visible in the KOH mount. Without this feature the spores clearly appear to be elliptical, as seen in the KOH micros.

Maybe these are something other than D. ancilis…? I haven’t previously carefully IDed this species. But a lot of stuff here seems to fit, including this “water mount” thing.

An apiculus
By: Phil Yeager (gunchky)
2014-04-26 20:19:04 EDT (-0400)

is a short projection on either end of a spore. How does this produce a spindle shape form by virtue of its being so small? Another term for spindle-shaped is fusiform. Check Largent etal, page 110, figure G.

I noticed this, Phil.
By: Dave W (Dave W)
2014-04-26 19:57:28 EDT (-0400)

The ones mounted in KOH appear to be perfectly elliptical. These photos fail to show the pointed apiculi which reportedly constitute a chief micro-character of D. ancilis. But the one micro photo of the water mount shows a spore with apiculi, and these projections contribute to the overall spindle shape. Check out the micro from Mushroom Expert.

Kuo says you may not see the apiculi unless the spores are mounted in water. Very mysterious. Maybe somebody who understands this better will weigh in. In the meantime, I’m hoping a few more spores drop.

By: Phil Yeager (gunchky)
2014-04-26 19:41:59 EDT (-0400)

your spores look more elliptical than spindle-shaped as defined for D. ancilis aka Gryromitra ancilis.

Created: 2014-04-26 18:54:01 EDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2014-04-27 10:23:21 EDT (-0400)
Viewed: 143 times, last viewed: 2019-07-12 17:04:22 EDT (-0400)
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