Proposed Names

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Recognized by sight
Based on chemical features: DNA was fragmentary; however, combined with the photograph the small amount of DNA supports the determination.

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Sounds good Dr. T. I’ll check the spot
By: Jon Shaffer (watchcat)
2018-05-27 12:45:46 CDT (-0400)
I’m working on these specimens again.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-05-20 11:14:25 CDT (-0400)

I really need a collection that was fully extracted from the ground with the volval sac. This will take some serious (careful) digging. I also need dimensions. There is a collecting notes form for amanitas on the WAO website which may help out.

You can download a blank form and a sample filled out for a species of the Vaginatae here: To’s&howto=16

Click “Read article” and after you do, there are blank forms and samples filled out for different sections of the genus that you can download.

Good luck. This is very interesting species in a very interesting group.

Very best,


That’s great, Jon.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-12-27 11:26:52 CST (-0500)

I look at these mushrooms and wonder why I only began to see “penetratrix” after years of looking at mushroom found during Connecticut forays. One possible reason is that I was not yet attuned to variation in the Vaginatae. Another reason might be that they were brought to the viewing tables without the whole stem. Still…why did I not see the striking umbo?

I’ll never know. Here is a real utility to the use of genetic sequences. They make you go back and look again…if nothing else. They are not magic. They can be misinterpreted. Sometimes they seem awfully hard to interpret (for me anyway). Nevertheless, having the data is like having 2.58943 eyes instead of 2.0. :)

Very best,


I remember the location and have read
By: Jon Shaffer (watchcat)
2016-12-27 01:43:02 CST (-0500)

Your description of these unusual mushrooms and will keep in mind the importance of properly extracting the long stipe.

See also MO #168734
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-12-24 00:24:14 CST (-0500)

I hope you have better luck getting the stem base of this creature in 2017.

Very best,


Thanks Jon,
By: groundhog
2015-06-23 17:01:20 CDT (-0400)

We have recieved this material and it has been accessioned to Rod’s herbarium. We are scheduling it for DNA sequencing.

Interesting. Both of these mushrooms were found in the same proximity, about 4 feet apart.
By: Jon Shaffer (watchcat)
2014-06-30 11:51:49 CDT (-0400)
Here is the name I couldn’t remember and a link.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-30 11:21:19 CDT (-0400)

This mushroom has only been found a few times; however, it has always been found with with volval sac deep in wet soil and in a state of slimy decay.

I am not saying that “sp-Litten_L-714” is what you have. I don’t think that at all. This is just my example of a relatively deeply inserted species that “sacrifices its stipe base.”

Very best,


The damp soil may also weaken the stem.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-30 11:17:09 CDT (-0400)

I have seen several species in section Vaginatae that, once the cap is above ground, are willing to “discard” the stem base. They simply let it decay…possibly this is because they restrict antibiotic compounds to the upper stem and cap in such a way that the cap can be kept properly oriented while any “excess” stem is simply sacrificed. Excuse me for the anthropomorphic metaphors. I know that mushroom doesn’t make decisions. I’m tryint to describe a possible evolutionary outcome that reduces expenditure of energy on maintaining an entire mushroom once spore liberation is underway with the gills at the “right” angle.

I have a particular amanita in mind…I’ll post it when I remember its name.

Very best,


Yes, was having trouble with damp soil clumped up around the base.
By: Jon Shaffer (watchcat)
2014-06-30 10:56:26 CDT (-0400)
I think I’m guessing in the right direction.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-30 10:44:59 CDT (-0400)

You may need an extraction tool that can reach a greater depth…perhaps a significantly deeper depth.