When: 2015-12-05

Collection location: Lourinhã, Portugal [Click for map]

Who: zaca

No specimen available

Growing on soil.


Microscopy: Asci stained with Congo red and Lugol-1;
A cracked specimen.
Microscopy: Sections;
Microscopy: Section after pressed;
Microscopy: Asci;
Microscopy: Spores;
Microscopy: Lugol in hymenium.
Microscopy: Evolution of the C reaction on apothecia.
Microscopy: Asci stained with Congo red and Lugol-2;
Microscopy: Asci stained with Congo red and Lugol-3;
Microscopy: Asci stained with Congo red and Lugol-4.

Proposed Names

29% (1)
Recognized by sight
58% (1)
Used references: LIAS light – A Database for Rapid Identification of Lichens. – liaslight.lias.net/
Based on microscopic features
Based on chemical features

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


Add Comment
Asci staining: new photos added.
By: zaca
2015-12-19 21:57:05 CET (+0100)
Ainoa geochroa: A lot more confident now than before!
By: zaca
2015-12-19 17:22:21 CET (+0100)

I have continued to search information about the species Ainoa geochroa. There was a particular point, related with the chemistry, that made me have some doubts. In my previous comment I described the C+ and KC+ reactions as “pink/red granular”, due to the fact that such coloration be observed at points (not continuous). Since, meanwhile, I could access the description of the genus Ainoa when it was created the explanation of the chemical reactions is there. I quote from the description:
“Thallus crustose, schizidiose or not, covered by an epinecral layer. Prothallus not visible. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Apothecia numerous, sessile, roundish, constricted at base, 1.0-3.5 mm diam, discs dark brown to blackish, plane to concave, margins prominent and persistent ; true exciple cupulate, dark brown, composed of long-celled, thick-walled hyphae; hymenium 90-150 µm tall, hyaline. Paraphyses septate, slightly branched, easily separated. Asci cylindrical to subclavate, Trapelia- type, 8-spored. Ascospores narrowly ellipsoid, hyaline, non-septate, non-halonate, 16-32 × 6-14 µm. Pycnidia immersed. Conidia fliform.
Chemistry : gyrophoric acid chemosyndrome restricted to apothecia and pycnidia”.
The new genus included A. geochroa as type species and A. mooreana, the former growing on soil and the latter predominantly on siliceous rocks.
So, as far as I can understand, the chemistry observed while performing the spot tests was due to the positive reaction on pycnidia and not on the thallus. To fully clarify this matter I essayed the C reaction on apothecia, more precisely the C reaction on a section observed under the micro. I just uploaded a set of photos showing the evolution of such reaction.

H. Thorsten Lumbsch, Imke Schmitt, Heidi Döring, Mats Wedina: ITS sequence data suggest variability of ascus types and support ontogenetic characters as phylogenetic discriminators in the Agyriales (Ascomycota), Mycological Research 105 (3): 265-274, 2001.

By: zaca
2015-12-19 00:03:41 CET (+0100)

Let me start saying that the name proposed – Ainoa geochroa – is just that, a name. this because I was unable to find any photo or other information of this taxa in the internet. However, I’m very confident on it. Let me explain why.
After made the microscopy I was a bit confused, because I was expecting something close to Porpidia. Starting with the sections and going to the asci, nothing resemble that genus. Even then, I didn’t made the obvious: chemistry.
As the key for genera consulted, both in the British Flora and the Sonoran Flora, didn´t give me any hint about it, I decided to use a tool that I used only few times before: the database and key of LIAS (see the reference). I started introducing some obvious data and the results I got for the spores, namely (now I mention the data introduced they appear in the key):
- global occurence: 02 – Eurasia-Europe
- ascomata : present
- ascoma : 01 – apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial
- substrate : 06 – soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves
- [ascm] paraphyses/-oids : present
- ascospores :
- [asp] lenght [µm]: 20.0 – 30.0
- [asp] width [µm]: 10.0 – 14.0
- [asp] septa : 01 – absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular
The response was that 18 taxa satisfying those features (not quite so, because there is some kind of precendence and overlapping, and so on). Looking to that taxa I could immediately eliminate a great amount and then I realise that the genus Trapelia was the most promissing among the hypotheses. At this point I thought to be a good idea to make the spot tests and to introduce the result in the key. This was like BINGO, because the spot test were C+ pink/red in granules, K-, KC+ pink/red in granules and introducing one more item in the key:
- secondary metabolites : present
the number of taxa reduced to 5, as follows:
Bryonora castanea
Fuscopannaria pratermissa
Pertusaria oculata
Trapelia geochroa
Trapelia involuta
The first three can be easily eliminated and the last one also, because the spores do not fill in the given interval (being a bit shorter) and I could a photo of that species at Stridvall’s gallery (where else?): http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/Trapelia/NIKB0926.
As a conclusion, only the name Trapelia geochroa remains. Then I accessed the description of it at LIAS database that I reproduce below, which seem to be a good choice.
As a final remark I must say that, consulting Index Fungorum, this taxon was transfered to the genus Ainoa, thus making the current name for it Ainoa geochroa.

Current Name:
Ainoa geochroa (Körb.) Lumbsch & I. Schmitt, in Lumbsch, Schmitt, Döring & Wedin, Mycol. Res. 105(3): 272 (2001)

Biatora geochroa Körb., Parerga lichenol. (Breslau) 2: 151 (1860)
Lecidea geochroa (Körb.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 141 (1912)
Lecidea geochroëlla Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univers. 3: 766 (1925)
Trapelia geochroa (Körb.) Hertel, Herzogia 1: 127 (1969)
LIAS light – Item Descriptions

LIASlight ItemID: 6268

Trapelia geochroa (Körb.) Hertel

Characters]: Character States[:
global occurrence: Eurasia – Europe
substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves
life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts)
thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified
[th] upper surface: white(ish)
[th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent
[th] medulla amyloidity: absent
ascomata: absent | present
ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial
ascoma [mm]: (min) 3.0
[ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | black(ish) brown
[ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present
asci: lecanoralean | unitunicate
[asc] tholus: thickened
[asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): absent | present
[asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube and flanks (= Rimularia-, Trapelia-types etc)
ascospores: (median) 8.0
[asp] length [µm]: (low) 16.0 (high) 32.0
[asp] width [µm]: (low) 6.0 (high) 14.0
[asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular
[asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless
[asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent
secondary metabolites: present
secondary metabolites: gyrophoric acid
primary photobiont: present
secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent
primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid
[*] Not all (synonymous, equivalent or similar) terms being provided in parallel for a character or character state (e.g. ‘endosubstratal, inconspicuous, immersed’) need to be valid for the taxon under concern.

Microscopy added; Don’t understand it!
By: zaca
2015-12-16 20:46:27 CET (+0100)

I was expecting something like a Porpidia, but looking at the sections it doesn’t seem to fit. I could not find an alternative.