Notes:
A few acorn trees in the vicinity.

Images

Proposed Names

28% (1)
Recognized by sight
ret
27% (1)
Recognized by sight: cake-like red-brown patches on center of cap, distinctive and rather broad and rather persistent white partial veil
Based on microscopic features: Spores could be unusually small spores of A. pleropus as easily as small spores of A. foetidissima.
Based on chemical features: Absence of odor.
ret
82% (1)
Based on chemical features: See comments. While this species seems very like A. pleropus, there are significant distinctions between this material and the type as reported by Reid in 1975. I have not seen the type. Hence, A temporary code name seems the appropriate way to connect the WAO website and GenBank to each other and to this observation.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus

Comments

Add Comment
Yes
By: Glen van Niekerk (primordius)
2019-02-17 22:39:41 CST (-0500)

Oak trees in the general area.

Is an “acorn tree” an oak? Or something else?
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-02-14 16:54:51 CST (-0500)

Just curious. I would not think that species in question is mycorrhizal.

Very best,

Rod

PREM is the Index Herbariorum code for
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-02-14 16:53:01 CST (-0500)

Plant Protection Research Institute South Africa. Gauteng Province. Pretoria.

So the number preceded by “PREM” in the previous post refers to a collection at the Insitute in Pretoria. Unfortunately the collection is not one that was cited by Reid and Eicher.

So I don’t know what it’s worth as a specimen (although the DNA says that it is very probably a specimen of Bas’ stirps Vittadinii. Someone on the ground in SA is going to have to pursue further information.

Very best,

Rod

I have found an nrLSU sequence of 500 characters from a specimen ID’d as pleropus.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-02-14 16:43:09 CST (-0500)

This old sequence (GB: ) aligns with our sp_SAfr01 sequence.

Remember our new sequence for the present species is three times as long as the sequence I found, which was submitted to GenBank on “18-JUN-2003.” The material sequenced was “PREM 47480.”

The genetic distance between this old sequence and ours (in the area of overlap) exceeds 5% or 25 out of 500 nucleotides.

Rod

We have obtained DNA from the voucher material for this observation.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-02-14 16:21:03 CST (-0500)

We have obtained DNA from the voucher material for this observation.

The closest match we can find genetically is not very close (an undescribed North American species of Amanita stirps Vittadinii at a genetic distance of 1.3% or 18 nucleotides different in a sequence of about 1400 characters). The closest African species that have been sequenced are as follows:

veldiei – 2.5% distance or 35 nucleotides
foetidissima – 2.7% distance or 38 nucleotides
praeclara – 2.9 – 3% distance or 40 to 42 nucleotides

I think we can say we are making legitimate comparisons because all the sequences came out of Dr. Kudzma’s lab and were edited and submitted to GenBank by me.

Now we need genes from something that matches the description of Amanita pleropus.

Very best,

Rod

All existing evidence suggests that the present material is assignable to…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-11-10 16:59:37 CST (-0500)

Amanita[subsection Vittadiniae] stirps Vittadinii because of the amyloid spores (hence, subgenus Lepidella) appendiculate cap margin and lack of a robust volva sack on the stipe base (section Lepidella sensu Bas), micro anatomy of the universal veil on the pileus and dissimilarities with regard to stirps Hesleri (subsect. Vittadinii), the presence of clamp connections on the bases of basidia, lack of an ocreate volva, and a membranous partial veil (stirps Vittadinii).

Very best,

Rod

I have been looking for a resolution for the observation for some time.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-11-10 16:39:05 CST (-0500)

We have genetic sequences and spore measurements and macro details. As of yet, I think that declaring that we have A. pleropus is too much of a stretch for me. I don’t have an explanation for why my spore measurements are so much smaller than those of Dr. Reid. Reid and his South African colleagues are responsible for resurrecting the name pleropus and restoring it to use. Considering, his spore data show spores larger than mine and that, in my experience, people not measuring spores in lateral view ONLY, tend to get spore too small and too round. I think that I cannot make an argument that we have looked at spores of the same species from the data in hand. For the time being, I am inclined too be conservative and not force a name onto this material.

On the other hand, we do have sequences of sufficient quality to post in GenBank, and it might help us, or future observers, if we connected gene sequences to the data we have about your voucher material for this observation.

Therefore, as in other cases, I’m proposing a temporary code for this taxon: Amanitasp-SAfr01.”

Very best,

Rod

….
By: Glen van Niekerk (primordius)
2018-04-21 15:27:36 CDT (-0400)

Hi Rod,

Do you think that OB 266855 is similar to this one? I had 266855 pinned down as A. pleropus according to my field guide.

There are a couple of other unknown Amanita added as well :)

Thank you,

Glen

Changed my mind about the volva in the center of the cap.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-21 14:11:43 CDT (-0400)

The sides of the volval fragments are pinkish and the top is reddish or pinkish brown. This is consistent with descriptions of the species.

It’s not soil. It’s volva.

R

A. pleropus was reported to be odorless.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-21 11:47:54 CDT (-0400)

R

We have very nice “proposed fungal barcode” (nrITS) and large subunit (nrLSU)…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-04-21 11:46:40 CDT (-0400)

…genes from this material, Glen.

The species is clearly associated with species of stirps Vittadinii with subsection Vittadiniae. This is consistent with a determination of Amanita pleropus.

http://www.amanitaceae.org?Amanita%20pleropus.

I think the red cake-like material is probably soil. The volva on the cap in the Vittadiniae is composed of radially arranged elongate cells and is probably best represented in your pictures as the brownish streaks that can be see near the cap margin.

This collection has really been a prize for everybody involved.

More work still to be done on it.

I owe you comments on apparent European spp. in South Africa. Bug me about it. Please. I am in a very hectic period at the moment.

Very best,

Rod

Still reviewing other material, but …
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-02-14 13:42:46 CST (-0500)

I have added A. pleropus as a more likely possibility than A. foetidissima.

Rod

Yes,…
By: Glen van Niekerk (primordius)
2016-02-14 10:57:26 CST (-0500)

I sent 3 specimens of which 229220 was the only one I have found in SA.
Observation 227968, I am more confident of being Amanita foetidissima. I was hoping to ID an Amanita that does not appear in our field guides…

Thank you very much for your efforts!

kind regards,

Glen

Well, that worries me, too. — EDITED
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-02-14 08:45:20 CST (-0500)

No odor and small spores in enough quantity to make a spore print.

I notice that you sent me foetidissima-like material with a bulb at the base of the stem. I’ll need to look at that also. I went through my notebook and found notes on one of the collections cited in the original description of foetidissima. So these should be compared against your collections as far as they go. And there are other things that should be checked further. So I’ll back off on my confidence in the determination of you material and look for more evidence.

Very best,

Rod

Hello Rod,
By: Glen van Niekerk (primordius)
2016-02-14 06:40:28 CST (-0500)

I noticed a partial spore print after removing them from the fridge on the way to my lab for drying. It was pure white. As for the aroma, there was not much to detected. This was the reason I made the collection for you. I would have been in trouble if I put strong smelling mushrooms in our food refrigerator :)

You are more than welcome to use any photos I have submitted!

Thank you very much!

Glen

Hello, Glen. After checking the gill surfaces and spores of both collections, …
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-02-13 15:45:35 CST (-0500)

I think that they went into the refrigerator early in sporulation (they were just getting started) and the process was slowed down. They never got back up to speed before being dried.

(Both specimens have spores that are below average in length and width as I mentioned.)

As we had discussed off line previously, this material is part of the group of lepidellas that seem to be amycorrhizal. How they manage to get their carbon is not clear. In one case, we know that the species Amanita thiersii can digest pure cellulose. But the set of genes available in theirsii is not available in all other taxa of subsection Vittadiniae Bas. (In fact at least two of these species could very well be mycorrhizal—-A. hesleri and A. zangii—-and others are a straight up mystery…at least at the moment.)

Anyway,…

It’s no surprise that the species has the stem tissue and gill tissue that characterize all members of the Amanitaceae and the sterile gill margin that is typical of Amanita. The universal veil on the cap is dominated by chains of long and narrow inflated cells; the cap margin is appendiculate; and the spores are amyloid. These three characters place the species in subsection Vittadiniae. The presence of clamps on the bases of basidia and the spore data and the geography and the staining universal veil match characteristics of Amanita foetidissima; so I sure hope it that smelled sufficiently bad to live up to its name. I’d like to use some of your photos on the WAO website, if you don’t mind. We’ll try to extract DNA from material as well.

With regard to your hope that you didn’t ruin something. You didn’t. I would just suggest that you try for a spore print before drying in the future. This is not because the spore print won’t be white for an Amanita (although there’s always a chance), but because a spore
print means “I am making spores.” This way we’ll know that we probably have some typical spores present on the gills and in the spore print.

Very best,

Rod

this amanita sure resembles a non-MR species.
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2016-02-13 12:19:31 CST (-0500)

were these found in a lawn?
is it too old/decayed for DNA analysis?

is there in fact more variability in spore shapes and sizes that we formerly believed? after all, “bad” things happen to mushrooms even when they are out standing in their fields.

Maybe the cold slowed down sporulation.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-02-13 08:19:43 CST (-0500)

Maybe there was some drying effect in the fridge. The spores are on the small side. I will continue to work on your material this weekend. I’m at the point of thinking that this collection probably had a pretty bad smell. Am I close? :)

Rod

Hi Rod,
By: Glen van Niekerk (primordius)
2016-02-13 07:57:39 CST (-0500)

Yes, I kept this particular observation in the fridge for +-18 hrs before I had a chance to dry it. I hope it was not ruined!

Hello, Glen.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-02-12 16:08:24 CST (-0500)

We have received your recent shipment in the classy plastic packaging. I began work on the 229220 material today.

By any chance did this material sit for several days before it was dried?

Very best,

Rod

Created: 2016-01-25 10:48:38 CST (-0500)
Last modified: 2019-02-17 22:39:42 CST (-0500)
Viewed: 238 times, last viewed: 2019-07-12 22:53:09 CDT (-0400)
Show Log