When: 2017-06-01

Collection location: Walton Co., Georgia, USA [Click for map]

33.7713°N 83.6681°W 263m [Click for map]

Who: Joan Knapp (PucaK)

No specimen available

Growing alone in clay soil on road shoulder
Cap, 2 inches diameter; gray; flat, striations at margin.
Gills. White; free.
Stipe. Ca. 2.5-to-3 inches above ground, ca. 1 inch below ground. Stipe snapped, unable to determine volva/base morphology. Surface rough.
Spore print. White
Spores. Globose

Thanks to Kenneth Barbagalio for ID


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Add Comment
how close is the DNA between the two species?
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2017-06-04 08:25:54 MST (-0700)
I am sorry to say, Joan, that there seems to be only a very slight difference in…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2017-06-03 20:41:32 MST (-0700)

…spore size; however, I wouldn’t put too much emphasis on that until we get measurements of hundreds of spores of both species. At present, I separate the material by the DNA sequences. This method seems pretty reliable. But we are going to look at more genes to see if we can’t get a greater sense of what tools we have that give the most solid set of results in separating the proposed taxa. We’re continuing to collect as much morphological information as possible hoping to get macro- or micro-characters that will serve in the field or lab without molecular work. But we don’t know any reason why we should always expect such things.

Very best,


A. rhacopus vs. A. texasorora
By: Joan Knapp (PucaK)
2017-06-03 14:04:30 MST (-0700)

A. texasorora was also suggested as a possibility. We thought it was more likely A. rhacopus, but…
Are there any easy ways to distinguish one from the other?
[I don’t have the specimen now so, unless we can determine from my documentation, it would remain unresolved]

I’m wondering how the possibility of A. texasorora was eliminated.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2017-06-03 13:27:40 MST (-0700)

Combining records from Florida and Georgia, both species are known from the collecting area (one species from each state). Their spores are quite similar so far as I know. The cap colors of the two species are both variable in the tan to dark grayish brown range.

Very best,


Created: 2017-06-03 11:52:13 MST (-0700)
Last modified: 2017-06-04 10:22:16 MST (-0700)
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