Trees in location were mix of white pine, spruce, and black oak.


Proposed Names

31% (2)
Recognized by sight
82% (1)
Based on chemical features: nrITS agrees 100% with original collection of Lamoureux (see below).

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= Observer’s choice
= Current consensus


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Since Dr. Kudzma was able to obtain very good raw data…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-01-19 22:46:20 CST (+0800)

from which a good quality nrLSU sequence could be derived, we now have an nrITS sequence from a specimen that has other support for a diagnosis of subnigra. So that’s progress.

Thanks for the material, Britt.

Very best,


The nrLSU derived from the voucher for this observation is 99.8% …
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-01-19 22:43:38 CST (+0800)

pairwise similar to the nrLSU for “sp-WA03” (4 characters difference in an overlapping region 1,463 characters long). Lesson: In section Vaginatae, very high similarity between nrLSU sequences may not prove a match. Possibly, even 100% similarity over a long range may not mean a match. This is why protein-coding genes may be needed to aid or dissuade in the case of getting evidence for statements like “these are the same species.”

Very best,


I have to correct myself.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-01-19 22:31:31 CST (+0800)

The only gene sequence that I have at hand from Lamoureux’s original collection (CMM 2197) is an nrITS (“proposed fungal barcode”) sequence. This sequence is a 100% match to the sequence derived from the voucher of this observation. The illustrations of this observation (in two different lightings) roughly bracket a part of the extended color range described by Lamoureux.

There is no nrLSU sequence for subnigra in GenBank so far as I can tell. Hence, it is no wonder we didn’t get a better match for our nrLSU…there were none to be found by BLAST.

Therefore, the best evidence that can be obtained molecularly agrees with Britt’s original idea…that this material is very likely to be A. subnigra.

Sorry, Britt.

Very best,


Thanks for posting this observation with images.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-01-19 00:27:43 CST (+0800)

And thanks for your email.

Very best,


According to RET, this one is most similar to…
By: Britt Bunyard (Fungi magazine) (bbunyard)
2018-01-18 07:48:49 CST (+0800)

strangely, Amanita sp WA-03. Both genetically and (to my eye) visually. Interesting. I’ll be on the watch for it in the woods and in my previously taken photos.