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When: 2021-10-04

Collection location: Scotland [Click for map]

(coordinates hidden from public) 626m

Who: DH42

No specimen available

I am seeking help accurately identifying this mushroom. This is the second year running I have found it. Initially, I had an idea that it may be Psilocybe Fimetaria, and this was confirmed by two online forums after I made identification posts.

This year, I have found it again, and became even more confident it was P.Fimetaria. However, there is one characteristic that differentiates it from the literature I could find online: the lack of clearly defined annulus, which Stammets and Walting put in their descriptions of P.Fimetaria. These mushrooms often have a ring zone / collar of dark spores where an annulus would be. I am wondering if it is possible that the American P.Fimetaria have such annulus, and European P.Fimetaria does not? Different species? Same species but different variants?

Therefore, would somebody who knows more that I please be able to offer their thoughts to exactly what this mushroom is. Personally, I am 90% sure it is P.Fimetaria and but there is a little bit of doubt that it may be P. liniformans var. liniformans.

Some more info:

- Fruits in similar habitat to P.Semilanceata
- Fruits in temps under 15 Celsius and after rain
- Grows on decomposing cow dung
- Seperable Gelatenous Pellicle
- Dark purple spore print
- Hygrophanous cap, fruits gregariously, farinaceous odor etc…

More info can be provided in the comments.

Proposed Names

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= Observer’s choice
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Add Comment
Phylogenetic tree
By: DH42
2022-01-06 10:36:09 CST (-0500)

Created by RenegadeMycologist, a phylogenetic tree has been added as an image to this observation

Gene sequence
By: DH42
2022-01-01 12:32:27 CST (-0500)

This sample has recently been confirmed Psilocybe Fimetaria – ITS sequence has been attached to the observation.

By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-16 07:10:29 CDT (-0400)

Those two photos were upload additionally upon my request to check for that feature. Some of the votes for liniformans I believe were prior to the public seeing those pictures. I also doubt liniformans taking all into account.

I have my doubts…
By: Anglerfish
2021-10-16 06:26:01 CDT (-0400)

…about this being P. liniformans. Looking at the two close up shots of
the gills, you can see where a few of the gills are split that there are
no visible remains of a separable gelatinous gill edge.

Make sure you bring along a safety pin or small needle next time
you go looking for these, so you can check the gill edges properly.

Was there any observable blue bruising?

Intervention Notes
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-14 08:50:23 CDT (-0400)

Hi again. I want to make two bold recommendations to you. Hear me out.
You should buy a pair of forceps, then go mushroom hunting in this field or neighboring fields with kindness in your inner being. Check again for Dusan’s tips, and take dozens of photographs without getting tired. Amplify your energy. Do this from within.

Reply to Dušan
By: DH42
2021-10-14 08:08:13 CDT (-0400)

I have saved a few small specimens and dried them out, and I’ll keep them somewhere airtight until I find someone who is willing to sequence their DNA or study them microscopically. Is there any way I could do any further tests on this mushroom myself, or to go further than macroscopic testing, would I need to have a proper mycologist look at them?

I’ll try to add the pictures of the gills to this post now.

Thanks DH42
By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-14 06:54:35 CDT (-0400)

For further investigation on this collection, highly appreciated from the mycological community !

Taking new facts into consideration, I switched to the fimetaria side. Perhaps dna studies could prove something different, so I would advise you to save some specimens (dry them first of course), because maybe sometime in the future some mycologist would like to study this collection with a microscope or get its genes sequenced to get more insight.

Please upload photo on MO with gill in focus where there is no (visible) separable gill edge layer (photo from the shroomery).

Cheers !

Dusan + Excited Delirium
By: DH42
2021-10-14 06:07:25 CDT (-0400)

Dusan + Excited Delirium just letting you know I have made a post on Shroomery:

Would be interested to hear your thoughts

Looking forward to see this case resolved
By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-08 11:33:21 CDT (-0400)

Please, don’t forget to post on shroomery as well.


Sounds Good
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-08 11:12:05 CDT (-0400)

Please note also that each (new) collection should be added separately by clciking “Create Observation.” This helps tremendously for those of us who are studying these collections in-depth.

Reply to Delirium
By: DH42
2021-10-08 11:04:27 CDT (-0400)

I will update this post by adding more pictures – but will get some more ones next time I go out (to check the gills). So will add them all in a few days, and also on The Shroomery

Reply To DH42
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-08 10:21:56 CDT (-0400)

Any Mushroom Observer contributor who wishes to be updated via email about this observation can click on the open eyes icon that looks like this:

This way, an observer does not have to send out multiple emails to multiple members. If you could please add all of your photography to MO, it will benefit this community greatly! If there are any other lurkers out there checking this collection out, please also add your photos to this site!

Replying to users Excited Delirium and Dušan
By: DH42
2021-10-08 09:16:18 CDT (-0400)

First, thank you both for your comments on this post. They are very informative. I did not know about the gelatinous gill edges test until recently, and I haven’t been out looking for these species since then. I will get out in the next few days and find out, and will update you when I know. I would like to find out exactly what this specie is, as a fair amount of people in the UK have been finding it and believing it to be P.Fimetaria. If this is indeed P.Liniformans, I will spread the world quickly to people who have been picking them already.

I haven’t quite got to grips with this site, so I’m not sure if I can send PMs to you both. However, when I have tested for the gill edge string, I will do a post on The Shroomery – and include lots of pictures. So, keep an eye out on that site in a few days time!

And to Chuck.HNTR – yes, that was me who did the post you refer The Shroomery last year.

Descriptions To Help Everyone
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-06 12:28:14 CDT (-0400)

Psilocybe liniformans var. liniformans
Pileus 10-25 mm in diam., convex to nearly plane, not papillate, sometimes slightly umbonate, glabrous, even, viscid, with a remobable pellicle, without veil remnants, hygrophanous, dull greyish ochraceous brown with slight olivaceous tones, more reddish at center, drying to ochraceous buff with a more brownish buff center and slightly greyish-olivaceous buff margin; in young specimens with a slightly bluish- olivaceous linge at margin.

Lamellae adnexed, rather distant, broad, ventricose fair!y dark color when young to purple brown with age; the edges with a gelatinous pallid and thickish thread, removable with needle as an elastic strip.

Stipe 14-30 × 1-2 mm equal, cylindrical, with up to 4 mm broad subbulbous base, hollow, surface whitish to very pale brownish and with a pale apex, with greenish blue tinges at base, finally greyish-green blue up to the apex, pruinose-granulose above, concolorously fibrillose below.

Veil not developed or at !east not evident in the adult.

Context glassy, dull brown, later pallid in stem, with amber brown layer under the surface of pileus and a nearly white context in the stipe. Smell peculiar, strongly ara- matie with a foetid component when crushed to farinaceous. Taste weak, not un-pleasant to somewhat farinaceous.

Spores (12-) 13-14.5 (-16.5) x 7.5-8.8 (-10) J.lm, ellipsoid both in side and face view, or slightly inequilateral in side view, with thick yellowish brown walls and a distinct apical germ pore.

Basidia 20-35 × 6-10 J.lm , 4-spored , hyaline, ventricose-subcylindrical, often with slight median constriction.

Pleurocystidia absent.

Cheilocystidia 22-33 × 5.5-9, abundant, combined with underlying gelatinized hyphae to form a sterile, detachable, elastic thread like band, hyaline, lageniform, with a neck more than 6 J.lm long and 1.5-2.5 11m wide, often forked, sometimes with an hyaline, apical viscous drop dissolvable in KOH.
Subhymenium subcellular, subhyaline, with yellow-brown pigment irregularly scattered amongst the cells. Trama regular, hyaline to brownish made up of hyphae with elongated cells, without incrusting pigment. Epicutis as gelatinized, thin layer, consisting of embedded, parallel, thin 1.5-3.3 J.lm wide, hyaline hyphae. Hypodermium formed by hyaline, up to 15 J.lm wide globose to elongated cells. Clamp connections present.

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION. Scattered or gregarious on horse dung or rich soi! in meadows. Known only from the Netherlands (type locality). Fruiting from summer toautumn.

Psilocybe fimetaria
Pileus (5-) 10-25 (-36) mm in diam., conie to convex or subcampanulate to umbo- nate, slightly papillate or acutely umbonate, then expanded, glabrous, but a first with conspicuous appressed silky white fibrils from the veil, surface even but slightly striate at the margin mainly when moist, viscid, with a rather tough sepa- rable pellicle, hygrophanous, pale reddish brown to honey color, sepia or ochraceous, sometimes clay olive honey, or yellowish olive, drying to ochraceous-buff or yellowish from center outwards.

Lamellae adnate, sometimes with a slight tooth at the stipe, whitish clay or pale clay-buff to olivaceous buff, finally dark purplish brown, concolorous or usually with whitish edges.

Stipe (20-) 40-65 (-90) x (0.5-) 1-3 (-4) mm, equal or slightly subbulbous, often with a slightly swollen base, stuffed with white pith, then hollow; surface white, then brownish red, pale sepia or sepia-honey especially in the lower part, sometimes with gray blue-greenish linges at base, covered at first by a silky-fibrillose white coating from the veil.

Veil weil developed as a white cortina that forms a more or Jess membranous and permanent annulus, but sometimes remaining only as floccose fibrilis on the stipe, white or concolorous with the gills from the spore deposite.

Context whitish to ochraceous in the pileus, olive-honey under the gills, white or whitish in the stipe, soon dark Vandyke in lower part of stem; this color spreading upwards with age. Taste and odor farinaceous, especially in young stages or when eut. Bluing when injured.

Spore print dark violaceous brown.

Spores (9.5) 11-14 (-16) x 6.5-8.5 (-9.5) 1-1m, subellipsoid or ellipsoid both in face and side view, thick-walled {1-1.5!-lm), yellowish brown, with a broad germ pore. Basidia 28-34 × 8-11 1-1m, 4-spored, rarely 2-spored, hyaline, subpyriform-ventricose, with sterigmata 2-3 1-1m wide at base.

Pleurocystidia absent.

Cheilocystidia 20-32 × 4-8 1-1m, abundant, forming a sterile band, hyaline, thin walled, ventricose-fusiform or lageniform (or almost Urtica-hair shape), with a narrow or pedicellate base; neck flexuous and long 4-15 × 0.5-1.5 1-1m, sometimes irregularl y branched.

Subhymenium somewhat subcellular with globose and short elements, hyaline or brownish pale, not incrusted. Trama regular, hyaline. Epicutis formed by a thick hyaline layer with gelatinous, parallel hyphae, 1-3 1-1m broad. – Hypodermium hyaline to brownish, not cellular, but with elongated to subglobose elements, mode- rately incrusted. Clamp connections present, 4-14 1-1m in diam., frequently branched .

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION. Singly or gregarious on dung (horse) or in rich soi!, in grassland or arnong Juncaceous plants. Sometimes forming large rings in the grass. Kno’:n from Europe, Northwestern North America, and South America (Chile). Fru1tmg dunng the summer in the boreal regions, and during the spring in the austral regions.

By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-06 12:00:25 CDT (-0400)

Observer could use a needle or a safety pin to try to check the gill edge for separable gelatinous layer which defines Ps.liniformans (epithet liniformans is because of that).

Most of the times liniformans and fimetaria look so alike, and micro overlaps, so it is of the utmost importance for one to check forementioned feature.

I would also like to see this specimen investigated thoroughly in a ways you previously stated. Although I believe it is one of those 2 species, but some new insight might be gained, since little is known about both of these spp.

Will send observation via mail. Cheers.

Taxonomic Character Mentioned
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-06 10:30:28 CDT (-0400)

Also, you made mention of checking if the gill edge layer is separable or not. Are you asking the observer to use forceps to gently fracture the cheilocystidia cell layer from the lamella?

Links To Netherlands Observations
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-06 10:15:49 CDT (-0400)

Yeah, could you send me those links, or just one of them?

By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-06 10:00:53 CDT (-0400)

This is not mutant of liberty. I thought in the past fimetaria does not exist at all, and it’s all liberty mutants – since semilanceata and fimetaria almost always grow in the same habitat (sometimes even next to each other), have similar fruiting season, and there are a lot of ambiguous collections etc.
I cooperated with person from Netherlands who found fimetaria and I convinced him it’s important to study it further and arranged sequencing for it. I got results a few months ago and it was a match (~100%) with Borovicka submitted sequence in the GenBank for fimetaria, but also (~100%) with obs 7476. I did not submit sequence into the Genbank, and I know Alan also has unsubmitted sequences. They all match one another basically.
It is worth noting that Netherlands is loaded with this species, they have some sort of local MO where there is fuck load of fimetaria observations.
If you’re interested in the topic further, I could provide with you links of those observations, with some insights about fimetaria in general, and my fimetaria sequence chromatograms – so you could analize it yourself (just send me dm if you’re interested).

To conclude, I don’t think mating studies would prove something different, since there is a distinctive dna barcode for this species.

This observation is 100% either fimetaria or liniformans. I’m leaning for the latter, due to some morphological traits, but Alan pushed it to the fimetaria side, so this is it for now.
I hope OP will check the gill edge, for separable gelatinous layer, since there is not much microscopic difference between the two forementioned, even if he decides to proceed in microscopic direction.

By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2021-10-06 09:19:56 CDT (-0400)

This (and related collections) should be good candidates for DNA sequencing, microscopic photography, chemosystematics, and a mating study or two. You did a good job photographing this collection. This may be a replicatable mutant variant of Psilocybe semilanceata, or a mating combination that closely resembles the mating configuration of Psilocybe semilanceata. It may also be a justifiable species that is genetically distinguished from other Psilocybes (Psilocybe fimetaria).

Is gill edge layer separable or not
By: Dušan (RenegadeMycologist)
2021-10-05 18:49:05 CDT (-0400)

After two years of finding it you could at least check for that feature, which is of the utmost importance

Beautiful finds
2021-10-05 17:43:54 CDT (-0400)

I think I remember seeing these posted somewhere last year.

Have you posted on Shroomery? I would recommend posting these there too. Have you sent them in to be DNA sequenced? Alan or someone else on Shroomery might offer to do some tests on them.

Great pics!!