Observation 65108: Limacella sect. Lubricae H.V. Sm. ex Singer

When: 2010-07-26

Collection location: Bendigo Regional Park, Lockwood, Victoria, Australia [Click for map]

Who: TimmiT

No specimen available



Proposed Names

55% (5)
Recognized by sight
27% (5)
Recognized by sight: Gelatinous veil
82% (1)
Recognized by sight: Because of gluten sheath on stipe.
74% (1)
Recognized by sight

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
see also
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-11-13 09:44:50 CST (-0500)

More discussion of what is apparently the same taxon can be found here


and that observation led to the page:



Thank you, Irene.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-06 11:38:53 CDT (-0400)


Another difference
By: TimmiT
2011-04-06 11:37:56 CDT (-0400)

The soils in Central Victoria are not calcareous and typically in the moderately acidic range (pH 5.5-6.0).

Just like to add..
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2011-04-06 10:26:28 CDT (-0400)

What they all have in common in Sweden, is calcareous ground.

Thank you
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-06 10:22:14 CDT (-0400)

Thanks very much for the environmental information and pictures. In the U.S., one common example of a Mediterranean climate often cited is southern California. I notice that very few limacellas are posted south of an area near the southern end of the San Francisco Bay…where people have been collecting limacellas occasionally over the last century or so.

There was a recent MO posting of a Limacella by Christian Schwartz from this particular area, and that are includes the type locality of L. mcmurphyi.

Maybe some one from the Santa Cruz area can tell us if limacellas are found that far south.

Very best,


By: TimmiT
2011-04-06 08:37:48 CDT (-0400)

My area is quite different to the ones you described. The climate is often referred to as ‘Mediterranean’ with hot dry summers and cool wet winters. The annual rainfall is between 500-800mm. Over winter (mushroom season) the temperatures are generally in the low-mid teens (Celcius) with overnight frosts common.

The vegetation is open sclerophyll woodland predominated by Eucalypts (E. tricarpa, E. microcarpa, E. melliodora). The landscape is generally flat to undulating with rocky, clay soils and a thin humus layer.

I have uploaded a couple of habitat photos to better illustrate.

I came to a similar conclusion…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-05 22:54:30 CDT (-0400)

When L. pitereka was named, it was based on material in Cleland’s collections that he had referred to H. candidus. This doesn’t decide the issue of whether L. pitereka is a Limacella or not. So the issue remains open. My concern, just to be clear, is that I have noted that a number of authors will not accept a species in Limacella if it is claimed to have pleuro- or cheilocystidia.

The test for membership in Limacella is that it shares the typical gill and stipe tissues of the Amanitaceae, but has fertile edges on its gills (where as Amanita doesn’t…due to its need to “tear” its gills off a stipe or annulus…it needs a sort of mycological velcro on its gill edges).

There are a few words about this general topic on the “About” pages at < www.amanitaceae.org >.

There is nothing in the “definition” that says that cystidia CAN’T be present. It’s just been observed (so far) that there haven’t been any…at least while mycologists were looking.

In the U.S., it’s not been easy to come up with descriptions of what is a good habitat for Limacella. I’m curioius to know what habit(s) you find your limcellas in.

People in the U.S. haven’t (and don’t) collected limacellas very often. In the places where one or more species are relatively frequently collected, it seems that they are found in temperate rain forest, or in subtropical areas where there are occasionally hurricanes or other heavy rains or are in areas with dense coastal fog or in the southwestern mountains during their “monsoon” season (20 minutes of drenching rain every day at 5 p.m. was my experience in SE Arizona)…

There are less than fifty named taxa; even including uncertain collections as possible taxa, one barely brings the total number up to 50. I’m inclined to think that my current count on www.amanitaceae.org is high with regard to North American taxa.

Interesting critters. I regret neglecting them for so many years.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Introduced Pines
By: TimmiT
2011-04-05 21:27:57 CDT (-0400)

By ‘pine’ I am referring to Northern Hemisphere trees, namely Pinus radiata plantations.

It looks as though I may have the misidentification backwards – Limacella pitereka was misidentified as Hygrophorus candidus – but the ICAF website is having problems with the species pages so I can’t double check that. I haven’t found any other mention of it.

I believe many Australian species have European names because they were introduced along with European plants, animals, etc. European settlers introduced a great deal of material in the 19th century. It’s hard to imagine these days when we have such strict biosecurity regulations.

By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-05 15:31:50 CDT (-0400)

When you use the word “pine” are you talking about a native tree or Northern Hemisphere pines that have been introduced?

Very best,


Very interesting concerning L. pitereka…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-05 15:02:43 CDT (-0400)

Can you tell me if the information about L. pitereka being a misidentification is in print some place? When I read the original description, I felt that it was unlikely to be a Limacella because cystidia were described. There are no Limacella known to have cystidia as were described for L. pitereka.

Hence, I’m very interested to know exactly what happened in terms of someone finding that a misidentification as to genus had taken place.

Do you use microscopic characters in determining limacellas?

All Limacellas are thought to be saprobic.

I’m very interested to know that a number of species are known from Australia. The names (excluding L. pitereka) are European. So I wonder if anyone has discussed whether the taxa or native or introduced. I am finding that a number of the species in the Americas that have been called under European names seem to be distinct from the latter. Sorry for not responding more quickly. I killed the automated notification capability because I was overwhelmed, etc., etc. I’ll turn on some of the capability again.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Limacella in Aus
By: TimmiT
2011-04-05 10:20:10 CDT (-0400)

The ICAF (Interactive Catalogue of Australia Fungi) website lists 6 species of Limacella being recorded in Australia. They are:

Limacella furnacea
Limacella guttata
Limacella illinita
Limacella ochraceolutea
Limacella pitereka
Limacella sp.

L. furnacea, L. guttata and L. ochraceolutea are all quickly ruled out. I’m not sure what ‘Limacella sp.’ is referring to so I’ll rule that out too. From what I can gather L. pitereka was a misidentification of Hygrophorus candidus (I could be wrong). So that just leaves L. illinita… or an undocumented species.

Found another gill shot
By: TimmiT
2011-04-05 02:28:47 CDT (-0400)

I went through my photos and found a better pic of the gills from an earlier date. It also looks like the lamellae are forked near the stipe.

From memory
By: TimmiT
2011-04-05 01:51:43 CDT (-0400)

the gills were free. It shouldn’t be long until they are fruiting again, so I will send you some dried material next time I find them. I will also try to document them better this season. They seem to be quite common in my area, so it shouldn’t be hard to find them again.

I have found these growing in both Eucalyptus and pine forrests with mycelium throughout the surrounding soil. Would this suggest that they are saprobic rather than mycorrhizal?


A couple of questions, TimmiT
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2011-04-04 14:33:01 CDT (-0400)

I can’t really see the whether the gills are free from the stem or attached. Do you remember anything about the gill attachment (or nonattachment)? Also, it looks as though the edges of the gills might be somewhat decorated? Is that just my imagination?

If you see this again and are able to dry specimens, I’d be very interested in seeing dried material.

Thanks for your posting.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Added photo of glutinous veil
By: TimmiT
2011-04-04 10:04:12 CDT (-0400)

Added a photo showing the glutinous partial veil of a specimen that dried out before maturing. It’s a very slimy little mushroom.

This mushroom was not found at the same time as the others in this observation, but is clearly the same species.

Created: 2011-04-03 14:05:40 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2014-06-17 06:57:07 CDT (-0400)
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