Observation 70596: Agaricales sensu lato

When: 2011-06-26

Collection location: Las Casas de la Selva, Patillas, Puerto Rico, USA [Click for map]

Who: patty (patty)

No specimen available

Young specimen

Species Lists



Proposed Names

8% (2)
Used references: Dennis Fungi of Venezuela
57% (1)
Recognized by sight
12% (2)
Recognized by sight
27% (1)
Recognized by sight

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
great, thanks!
By: patty (patty)
2011-07-01 12:01:29 PDT (-0700)

I also put up a picture of another collection that’s more mature…

Looks like our Panus conchatus
By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2011-07-01 09:16:56 PDT (-0700)

I wonder how closely related they are.

By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2011-07-01 01:22:07 PDT (-0700)

Some of this probably would do well as filler for either the Pyrrhoglossum or P. pyrrhum name pages, but I include it all here for the meantime, if for no other purpose than to gain a clear understanding of the distinctions between species within the genus. I’ll update this comment and subsequent name pages as I collect more info. The most immediate work cut out for us is how to reconcile the stark macromorphological differences between what you’ve called P. pyrrhum here and what I’ve called P. pyrrhum from Ecuador.

Crepidotus substipitatus Murr. in Mycologia 5: 31 (1913).

El Yunque, near Baracoa, on dead twigs on ground, March 1903, Underwood
& Earle 1236 (holotype NY).

Singer (1947: 85) indicated that the collection represented the common,
Caribbean species, Pyrrhoglossum pyrrhum (Berk. & Curtis) Singer, and this is confirmed in the present study. The spores are subglobose to ovoid, 5.6 x
3.5-4.5 (5-5 ± 0.3 × 4 ± 0.2) μm, Q = 1.3, deep ferruginous, and coarsely
verrucose. The very short, curved stipe described in the original account would
indicate the species to be P. pyrrhum rather than P. stipitatum Singer. (Fig. 5L).

spores and cheilocystidia of P. pyrrhum

A Revision of the Agaricales of Cuba 2. Species Described by Earle and Murrill. D. N. Pegler Kew Bulletin Vol. 42, No. 4 (1987), pp. 861

Agaricus pyrrhus Berk. & Curtis, op. cit.: 291.
Crepidotus pyrrhus (Berk. & Curtis) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 5: 879 (1887).
Pyrrhoglossum pyrrhum (Berk. & Curtis) Singer in Mycologia 36: 367 (1944).

‘Pileo conchiformi sessili glabro rufo; lamellis latis concoloribus; sporis ferrugineis
echinulatis. On dead wood. Pileus 1:3-1 inch (8-5-25 mm) across;
stem 1:3-1:2 inch (8-5-12-7 mm) long.’

Wright 38, Herb. Berk. (holotype K).

Singer (1944a: 367) proposed this species as the type of his new genus
Pyrrhoglossum, a crepidotoid member of the Cortinariaceae, allied to Gymnopilus. The type specimen has spores, measuring 5-6 × 3.5-4.5 (5.5 ± 0.3 × 4 ± 0.2) μm, Q = 1.3, subglobose to ovoid, with a suprahilar depression, ferruginous, strongly verrucose, and lacking a germ-pore. The lamella-edge has scattered, hyaline, lecythiform cheilocystidia, 14-20 × 4-6 μm, with a small capitellum, 2-4 mm diam. Detailed descriptions of Pyrrhoglossum pyrrhum have been published by Dennis (1953a: 173) from Trinidad, and Pegler (1983a: 550, pl.
17E-D) from the Lesser Antilles. (Fig. 10E-F).

A Revision of the Agaricales of Cuba 1. Species Described by Berkeley & Curtis D. N. Pegler. Kew Bulletin Vol. 42, No. 3 (1987), pp. 526-527

7. Pyrrhoglossum Sing. gen. nov.
Cortinariacearum genus; pileo astipitato vel pseudostipite superiore praedito, vel possibiliter in aliis speciebus minus notis brevissime lateraliter stipitato, plerumque asymmetrico, lobato lacerove, rarissime subcirculari integroque; lamellis sporarum massae causa laetissime ferrugineis in adultis; sporis breviter ellipsoideis, ferrugineis, grosse verrucosis, disco levi supra-hilari poroque germinativo destitutis; cystidiis veris nullis; cheilocystidiis inconspicuis; tramate regulari, flavo; hyphis fibuligeris; habitatio: ad lignum, in regionibus tropicalibus.

The type species of the genus Pyrrhoglossum is Agaricus (Crepidotus) pyrrhus Berk. & Curt., or Crepidotus pyrrhus (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. Crepidotus laceratus Pat. from Guadeloupe is a synonym, and so is Agaricus (Crepidotus) pyrrhus var. leiospora Berk. and Curt. I have carefully compared all the types concerned, and cannot find any real difference between these plants. The allegedly smooth spores of the variety, actually are just as verrucose as they are in the type form. The new combintion Pyrrhoglossum pyrrhus (Berk. & Curt.) Sing. comb. nov. is proposed. This new genus is very well defined by its pleurotoid habit, combined with bright ferruginous warty spores. In fact, the anatomy of the cuticle, the trama, and the hymenium is the same in Pyrrhoglossum and in Gymnopilus Karst. (Fulvidula Romagnesi, Flammula, sect. Sapineae aut.). The chemical reaction with KOH also is identical in the last named genera. Thus, what Crepidotus is to Ripartites, Pyrrhoglossum is to Gymnopilus. There is a natural hiatus between both of these genera, the difference in the spores being more conspicuous in Ripartites-Crepidotus, while the difference in the shape of the carpophore is more abrupt in Gymnopilius-Pyrrhoglossum. There are analogous pairs in other families, such as Leucopaxillus and Lentinellus, Crinipellis and Chactocalathus, Clitocybe and Pleurotus. It is true that in some other groups, as for example in the genus Lentinus, or in Paxillus or Clitopilus, there is no abrupt cleavage between pleurotoid and centrally stipitate forms, and it has turned out that their subdivision into centrally and laterally and not stipitate species by Karsten and others did not produce well defined genera. While, as a general rule, we do not think that the above characters can serve as a base for splitting a homogenous genus into two or three genera, we are convinced that the opposite doctrine would be just as wrong. There is evidence that in some cases the presence or absence of the stipe may be the main character distinguishing two related genera, and still these genera would be separated not merely artificially, but according to evolutional lines. It seems to us that, in the case of Pyrrhoglossum, we have to do with an independent line of phylogenetic development particular to the tropics. A practical reason for erecting a new genus is the improbability that anybody trying to determine Pyrrhoglossum would look for it in Gymnopilus, as is clearly shown by the history of the plants described so far. The affinity of Gymnopilus and Pyrrhoglossum has been established only on the base of a very detailed microscopical analysis and additional chemical data. Another species which will probably be transferred to Pyrrhoglossum as a second species, is Agaricus croceosanguineus Mont. from Chile, also considered to be a Crepidotus in citations previous to this.

New Genera of Fungi. Rolf Singer. Mycologia Vol. 36, No. 4 (Jul. – Aug., 1944), pp. 367-368

As pointed out by Horak and Desjardin (2004), the Japanese C. subpurpureus also occurs in Papua New Guinea. Based upon the features observed on the Papuan specimens, these authors presented a complete description and proposed its transfer from Crepidotus to Pyrrhoglossum (P. subpurpureum [S. Ito & S. Imai] E. Horak & Desjardin). As mentioned above the Mexican C. rubrovinosus and the Japanese- Papuan P. subpurpureum share important characters. The most noteworthy features in common are the colors (vivid red, wine-red or deep lilac to purple) rarely observed in other representatives of Crepidotus and Pyrrhoglossum, the colored gill edges, the conspicuously ornamented basidiospores and with a plage-like, supra-apicular spot, the plasmatic pigment in both the pileipellis hyphae and cheilocystidia (rapidly dissolving in KOH in C. rubrovinosus), and finally the presence of clamps on the septa. Crepidotus rubrovinosus and Pyrrhoglossum subpurpureum appear to be morphotaxonomically intermediate between two established crepidotoid genera, Crepidotus and Pyrrhoglossum. However these two taxa can be separated by the general structure of the pileipellis, the different color of both the hymenophore and spore print, as well as the basidiospore ornamentation (and perhaps size). Crepidotus rubrovinosus is characterized by yellow or yellow-brown basidiospores correlated with a yellow-brown spore print and yellowish to pale brown lamellae, contrary to Pyrrhoglossum subpurpureus which has a rust brown spore print and basidiospores of the same color correlated with the pale gray and gradually pinkish lamellae. Furthermore the two taxa are separated by the color of the pileus context (gray for P. subpurpureus; white to yellowish for C. rubrovinosus) and the subtle but distinctive differences of the plasmatic pigments localized both in the pileipellis hyphae and in the cheilocystidia (i.e. the cells filled with wine-red to purple plasmatic pigments persistent in KOH in P. subpurpureus). Based on results of pending DNA analysis the present taxonomic position of both Crepidotus rubrovinosus and Pyrrhoglossum subpurpureum could be re-evaluated later. The authors for the time being prefer to describe the new Mexican species as a member of Crepidotus.

Crepidotus rubrovinosus sp. nov. and Crepidotus septicoides, Found in the Cloud Forest of Eastern Mexico, with Notes on Crepidotus fusisporus var. longicystis. Victor M. Bandala, Leticia Montoya and Egon Horak. Mycologia. Vol. 98, No. 1 (Jan. – Feb., 2006), pp. 134-136

Sydowia articles coming soon…

Created: 2011-06-30 11:08:33 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2018-07-27 08:51:40 PDT (-0700)
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