Observation 76051: Inocybe dulcamara (Pers.) P. Kumm.

When: 2011-08-09

Collection location: Bovec basin, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia [Click for map]

46.31859° 13.50415°

Who: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)

Specimen available

Several experts have been consulted for determination. No consensus has been reached yet. This is what has been proposed to be considered seriously: Tubaria conspersa (http://mycologie.catalogne.free.fr/...), Alnicola dubis = Rhodocybe dubia (Moser), Inocybe (section Mallocybe), Alnicola subconspersa (Kühn. ex Orton) Bon 1979. However, nothing really fits to the mushrooms found according to sources available to me. Your help would be appreciated.

Habitat: Semi-ruderal river shore overgrown with young Salix purpurea and Alnus incana (not S. glutinosa!), a few years ago bulldozer-ed calcareous alluvial gravel, flat terrain, sunny place, exposed to direct rain, average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 8-10 deg C, elevation 335 m (1.100 feet), alpine phytogeographical region.

Substratum: Gravel, some silt and sand among river pebbles, nutrient poor ground (mostly fallen Salix leaves in different state of disintegration).

Place: Bovec basin, right bank of river Soča near Podklopca settlement, former gravel digging querry, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC

Description: Growing solitary but many sporocarps scattered around. Pileus diameter 15-30(35) mm (0.6-1.5 inch), stipe quite fibrous, hollow. Almost all pileus have distinct remnants of veil on top. SP brown. Sporocarps heavily shrunk after drying.

Code: Bot_541/2011_DSC8981

Nikon D700 / Nikkor Micro 105mm/f2.8 and Canon G11, 6.1-30mm/f2.8-4

Species Lists


Gils in crossection.
Pileipellis with trama underneath.

Proposed Names

28% (1)
Recognized by sight
Based on microscopic features: Spores seem smooth in profile, but show grainy structure on the surface (poor microscopy? – Tiny warts may not be visible in water?). Dimensions of spores: 9.7 (SD = 0.6) x 5.3 (SD = 0.6) micr., Q = 1.82 (SD = 0.11), n = 30. Motic B2-211A, magnification 1.000 x, oil, in water.
Based on chemical features: No distinct taste or smell (I am weak in that).
-32% (4)
Recognized by sight: too well documented to have remained Fungi sp. for so long. consider this a wild guess to get the ball rolling
50% (4)
Recognized by sight: in subgenus Mallocybe, as suggested, with Salix. common habitat for this group.
63% (3)
Eye3 Eyes3
Used references: Ref.:(7) G.J. Krieglsteiner, Die Grosspilze Baden-Wuerttembergs, Vol.5. Ulmer (2003), p396.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
By: Gerhard Koller (Gerhard)
2012-01-03 15:21:54 CST (-0500)

Inocybe is one of the most difficult genera of mushrooms and there has been a whole of about 350 species been described for Europe only and about 700-800 worldwide. The genus is very poor in distinguishing features macro- as well as microscopically. There are a few dozens that are easily identified if you have developed an eye for that but all the other ones simply are subject for experts and even they err often. There are for sure a few other species that could be your observation but I cannot think of any names of now.
Of course weather conditions can play a role as well as the stage of the fruitbodies (age, dryness, soaked etc.). But nevertheless I am convinced it is not Inocybe dulcamara. Clamped hyphae is not a criterium for determining Inocybe species in general important are spore form and size and cystidia form and size (cheilo-, pleuro- and caulocystidia). Never touch an Inocybe at the stipe if you are not one hundred percent sure about having or not having caulocystidia the whole length of stipe etc … You often have to consider the thickness of spore wall and cystidia wall as well and if they are turning yellow in lyes. Ok, enough of that. You should contact a mycologist who deals with Inocybe to maybe come to a conclusion although I do not think it is possible without fresh new finds.

No success :-(
By: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)
2012-01-03 14:57:03 CST (-0500)

It appears that this subject matter is too hard a nut for me. I tried my best but there was no success.

Ellen’s paper describes in detail Inocybe dulcamara and indeed her description doesn’t fit to my observation in the following characters: Presence of olive yellow tint in pileus and lamellae (There was no olive tint in my observation). I cannot see hyphae clamps (but this can easily be due to my rudimentary microscope skils). In the text she also mentions for pileus"… not of dark colors..", which supports your observation and comments. I was also unable to find any distinct smell of my observation while I. dulcamara should smell on burned sugar, honey-like. So, Ellen’s paper speaks against I. dulcamara.

Her paper doesn’t include Gerhard’s proposed alternatives Inocybe salicis and Inocybe aghardii. Inocybe aghardii is described in Breitenbach, Fungi of Switzerland and in Krieglsteiner (Ref.:7). It has narrower spores than I.dulcamara. This contradicts to my measurements, where spores dimensions fit well to I. dulcamara. I. salicis is covered neither by Breitenbach nor by Kriglsteiner, but according to Mycobank I.salicis has spores dimensions 10-13 × 8-9(10) µm while I measured 9.3 × 5.3 micr (average). Also the stipe should have diameter from 1.5 to 3 mm, which is far less than what I photographed. So, I am somehow lost in the wild… Too difficult theme for me :-). May be unusually dry season made my mushrooms so dark and non-olive?

Nevertheless, thank you again for your efforts.

Thank you for your input.
By: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)
2011-12-28 15:08:23 CST (-0500)

Thank you Irene and Gerhard for your input. Will try to study Ellen’s paper and gather as much as I can of information about the Inocybe salicis and Inocybe aghardii.

Re: weather conditions. The mushrooms were found during a long unusually dry period. No rain for many days. I remember that there were practically no other mushrooms in the woods. However, the ground never dries at the spot since the underground water level is very close to surface due to nearby river.

I tend to call that Inocybe dulcamara group too,
By: Gerhard Koller (Gerhard)
2011-12-27 07:10:31 CST (-0500)

but the presence of Salix alongside river can also point to Inocybe salicis and the sandy soil to Inocybe aghardii. I. salicis I believe to have found this year in Bosnia in similar habitat, it is quite dark as this find is. I. aghardii has smaller scales on cap than dulcamara and lacks the smell. Furthermore it is brighter colored. How were the weather conditions?

I assume
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2011-12-27 05:59:59 CST (-0500)

that the dulcamara group isn’t fully understood yet. These are darker than the ones I’m used to see (taste should be bitter).

I don’t know if this paper is of any help

Perhaps you could write to Ellen and ask if she is interested in a part of your collection? From what I’ve heard, she’s still working on this group.

possibly I. dulcamara
By: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)
2011-11-15 15:10:45 CST (-0500)

Thank you ‘else’. After you limited this observation to Inocybe sec. Mallocybe I spent some more time with it. Recently I purchased five volumes of G.J. Krieglsteiner, Die Grosspilze Baden-Wuerttembergs, Ulmer (2000-2003) (ref.7) (now only 19.90 EU each – except Vol.5.!), which describes in section Malocybe six species. Four of them clearly do not fit to my observation (either too big spores or significantly different habitus). According to this reference the best fit seems to be Inocybe dulcamara. Habitus, several details, habitat, host, spores and also picture published on page 396 of Vol.5. are all right. An alternative is Inocybe agardhii , which doesn’t fit so well and is a very rare species (at least in Baden-Wuerteemberg). I. dulcamara is quite common and reported from all European countries, which increases the probability that this determination is OK. However, on net I found also many pictures and other data which is different from my observation. Also there is obviously no guaranty that all Inocybe in Slovenia grow also in Baden-Wuerttemberg. So, let vote ‘Could Be’ for dulcamara.

I hope too
By: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)
2011-11-14 16:24:40 CST (-0500)

Thank you Danny for your support. I hope too that somebody knowledgeable enough will say something about this ‘secret’.

Created: 2011-09-11 07:10:04 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2018-05-25 19:57:34 CDT (-0400)
Viewed: 763 times, last viewed: 2018-08-14 04:53:34 CDT (-0400)
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