Collection location: Serra de São Mamede, Portugal [Click for map]
This observation refers to the foliose lichen on the right hand side of the 1st photo attached.
It seems to me that the big structure at the center of the thallus can be a cephalodium, which will make Placopsis the genus candidate for its classification.
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a bit of frustration, this was a good exercise. Now, I’m in advantage: I know where they live. Next time I´ll catch them all, so to say.
when I “discovered” the genus Placopsis, related to another observation, I remembered seeing something similar to cephalodia that was mentioned in your comment. I checked and found … this. I confess that in the field seemed a vulgar and sterile Aspicilia with no particular interest in not having apothecia. Even now, even magnifying the photos, I’m not sure to see some. So do not gathered any material, unfortunately.
That looks just like the cephalodia on Placopsis… yet the crust looks just like an Aspicilia! All our Placopsis have creamy-whitish crusts, but I’ve seen brown and gray ones in South America. I can convince myself that there are a few scattered areoles with sunken black apothecia which would indicate Aspicilia. If you were to section one of those, even in the extremely likely case that you found no spores, you would at least be able to verify if it was an apothecium and (probably) had moniliform paraphyses.