Please do not re-click a link while waiting for a page to load. (It’s slower and degrades site speed for all users.)
To get images for machine learning, see MO Images for Machine Learning

Species List: Inocybe Species Demonstrating Green To Blue Spectrum Hues ◭ Recommended For Study – P1 (1219)
When: 2018-05-27
Observations: 63


Starting Literature:

Part I

A present day, state-of-the-art test for the presence or absence of Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Baeocystin)※, Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and Aeruginascin – at a minimum – is needed. Undiscovered pre-cursors and post-cursors to Psilocybin should also be selected for testing. This study should include an attempt to discover new Lectins with valid anti-cancer properties (see the study for Inocybe umbrinella).

Examination for the following is definitely recommended:

4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid (4-CI-IAA),
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid,
Amatoxins and Amanitins,
D-Lysergic Acid,
Indole-3-Acetic Acid,
Indole-3-Butyric Acid,
Oxindole (2-Indolone),
Phallotoxins and Phalloidins,
Phenylethylamine, (Which May Increase Heart Rate),
Psilacetin (O-Acetylpsilocin, 4-AcO-DMT),
Sanguinone A,
Sanguinone B,
Seratonin (5-HT),
Tryptophan (L-Tryptophan)
Variegatic Acid.

Additional Recommendations

🍄 Chemical chirality is determined and demonstrated using Atomic Force Microscopy
🍄 Chemical transcience and lifespan are discussed and observed in lab myceliums, in freshly harvested wild collections, and in herbarium collections.
🍄 A full (complete) genome DNA phylogeny is included
🍄 All genus sections relevant are updated. Synonyms are determined.
🍄 Complete taxonomic descriptions are published using all names listed below.
🍄 Paper is published as a courtesy to the public
🍄 Taxonomically useful color photos are published for each species
🍄 Paper is published in 5-7 languages (English, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian)
🍄 Mating studies are performed. Compatability or non-comptability is determined when synonyms require additional evidence.
🍄 A careful comparison is made showing similarities and differences in symptoms after consuming Psilocybin solely, Titrated Muscimol solely, and Muscarine solely. Antidotes to conclude the effects of all three chemicals should be re-published.

🍄 Myceliums are observed in an experiment in which electromagnetic light (320-400 nanometers) is aimed using slightly nuanced distances and time durations. In contrast, (blue light 440 – 490 nm) and green light (490 – 570 nm) (see nanometer graph elsewhere) tests should be conducted with great patience in separate groups. Dextrose is added to antibiotic agar petri dishes in a separate test group (Test Group 4) in which the myceliums fully colonize, followed by repetitive exposures to light in the 320-400 nm wavelength in Test Group 1, blue light in Test Group 2, then green light in Test Group 3. Additionally, some colonized dishes are selected for cold-shocking to assist in primordia formation (Test Group 5).
🍄 Techniques of growing mycorrhizal Inocybe species in mycelial culture and methods for fruitbody production are published, including growth parameters, with some inspiration from Morchella cultivation successes.
🍄 Quantification of blue-to-green collections are made, with emphasis on where (on the basidiocarps) this color spectrum most frequently occurs and why.
🍄 Attempt to thoroughly understand how a Psilocybin analogue or post-cursor could become chemically altered to reverse a blue bruising effect on a mushroom back to white (in this genus).
🍄 Every mycelium achieving luxuriant mycelium status is cloned and placed into standard, sterilized malt agar ALONG WITH several common bacteria species, individually, that negatively impact humans via gastronomy-related conditions. These myceliums will be tested as winning adveraries with anti-bacterial properties just as Alexander Fleming performed with a Penicillium species. Fleming was able to defeat a Staphylococcus species. Additionally, see the following test:
🍄 A detailed glossary with definitions and images is included.

Notes Regarding The Colors Presented By Active Inocybe Species
The traditional bluing seen in species in the genus Psilocybe is not paralleled in the genus Inocybe. Instead a nuanced color spectrum is exhibited ranging from olive greenish, olive brown, a pale greenish tinge, bluish green, greenish to bluish-green tinge, olivaceous tinge, greenish blue or dark greyish green, olivaceous black, black-green, (pale) greenish-greyish tinges, dark olivaceous grey, tinged blue-grey, bluish-grey, greenish-gray, and greenish blue to blackish blue.
An intuitive chemical investigation is now needed in order to better describe the related colors observed in this genus and their corresponding chemical reactions. Note that not all individual specimens in a Psilocybin-positive collection will exhibit these colors, and yet those same specimens can test positive for Psilocybin. Not all Psilocybin-positive collections will display these colors either. The “blue bruising” reaction which occurs quite often when handling species in the genus Psilocybe does not commonly occur in the vast majority (=nearly all) of Inocybe species. Furthermore, species in this genus which are known for Psilocybin production often have a very brief exhibition of colors hinting at Psilocybin followed by another subtle transformation in color. It would be appropriate to test all available herbarium collections possible that have been DNA sequenced and already identified as a species belonging to the genus Inocybe. Important, too, is the chemical investigation of any toxins capable of harming humans or which interact with Psilocybin in any manner. This genus is dangerous and includes highly poisonous species producing Muscarine, a parasympathetic nervous system toxin whose antidote very soon after consumption is Atropine. The fungal metabolic rate and half life of Psilocybin in freshly harvested collections should be carefully analyzed as well and described in new literature.

See photography below.

The Species

Inocybe abjecta P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 32: 456 (1879)
Inocybe aeruginascens Babos, Bohus, Bot. Közl. 57(1): 21 (1970)
Inocybe albovelutipes Stangl, in Stangl, Winterhoff & Schwöbel, Z. Mykol. 46(2): 166 (1980)
Inocybe amazoniensis Singer & I.J.A. Aguiar, in Singer, Araujo & Ivory, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 77: 182 (1983)
Inocybe apiosmota Grund & D.E. Stuntz, Mycologia 67: 21 (1975)
Inocybe araneosa Matheny & Bougher, Fungi of Australia: Inocybaceae: 439 (2017)
Inocybe bohemica nom. ined.
Inocybe calamistrata (Fr.) Gillet, Hyménomycètes (Alençon): 513 (1876) 1878
Inocybe calamistratoides E. Horak, N.Z. Jl Bot. 15(4): 7161 (1978)
Inocybe calospora Quél., in Bresadola, Fung. trident. 1(1): 19 (1881)
Inocybe coelestium Kuyper, Persoonia 12 (4): 479 (1985)
Inocybe corydalina Quél., Mémoires de la Société d’Émulation de Montbéliard 5: 543 (1875)
Inocybe cyaneovirescens Henn., Bot. Jb. 28(3): 323 (1900)
Inocybe cyanotrichia Matheny, Bougher & G.M. Gates 2017
Inocybe erinaceomorpha Stangl & J. Veselský, Ceská Mykologie 33 (2): 72 (1979)
Inocybe fastigiata (Schaeff.) Quél., Mémoires de la Société d’Émulation de Montbéliard 5: 180 (1872)
=Inocybe rimosa (Bull.) P. Kumm., Führ. Pilzk. (Zerbst): 78 (1871)
Inocybe fulvella Bres., Fung. trident. 2(8-10): 16 (1892)
Inocybe glabripes Ricken, Die Blätterpilze 1: 107 (1915)
Inocybe griseoscabrosa (Peck) Earle, Torreya 3(11): 169 (1903)
Inocybe haemacta (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 763 (1887)
Inocybe hirsuta Mém. Soc. Émul. Montbéliard, Sér. 2 5: 178 (1872)
Inocybe hygrophana Glowinski & Stangl, in Stangl & Glowinski, Karstenia 21(1): 27 (1981)
Inocybe insignis A.H. Sm., Mycologia 33(1): 11 (1941)
Inocybe ionochlora Romagn., Beih. Sydowia 8: 352 (1979)
Inocybe lacera var. regularis Kuyper, Persoonia, Suppl. 3: 105 (1986)
Inocybe mucidiolens (Grund & D.E. Stuntz) Matheny, in Pradeep, Vrinda, Varghese, Korotkin & Matheny, Mycol. Progr. 15(3/24): 24 (2016)
Inocybe mutata (Peck) Massee, Ann. Bot., Lond. 18: 496 (1904)
Inocybe obscurobadia (J. Favre) Grund & D.E. Stuntz, Mycologia 69(2): 407 (1977)
Inocybe olivaceobrunnea J. Favre ex Kuyper, Persoonia, Suppl. 3: 117 (1986)
Inocybe olivaceohinnulea Matheny & Bougher, Fungi of Australia: Inocybaceae (Melbourne): 186 (2017)
Inocybe olivaceonigra (E. Horak) Garrido, Biblioth. Mycol. 120: 177, 1988
Inocybe olivaceoviridis E. Ludw., Pilzkompendium (Eching) 4: 226 (2017)
Inocybe perparva nom. ined.
Inocybe proxima E. Horak, Matheny & Desjardin 2015
Inocybe tenebrosa Quél., C. r. Assoc. Franç. Avancem. Sci. 13: 279 (1885) 1884
Inocybe tahquamenonensis D.E. Stuntz, Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences 39: 78 (1954)
Inocybe tricolor Kühner, Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes d’Oyonnax 9 (suppl.): 6 (1955)
Inocybe vinosistipitata Grund & D.E. Stuntz, Mycologia 75: 269 (1983)
Inocybe viridiumbonata Pegler, Kew Bulletin Additional Series 9: 534 (1983)
Inocybe xanthomelas Boursier & Kühner, Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 49(1): 84 (1933)

Just as the genus Psilocybe was distinguished from Deconica, it could become nomenclaturely possible to move all green-bluing species of Inocybe into either a genus or a section in the near future. The predominance of the color green rather than blue in this genus’s active species may provide a hint of either an altered oxygenation process, a fungal metabolic state, chemical transcience, or the presence of an additional, mingling chemical. It may also be representative of dephosphorylation or methylation.

Stijve et al. (1985) discovered that all psilocybin-containing species of Inocybe lack muscarine. Kosentka et al. (2013) found that muscarine and psilocybin have not been found to co-occur in a single species. The biochemical pathways that generate the two toxins are entirely distinct and unrelated (Agurell & Nilsson 1968; Nitta et al. 1977; Bresinsky & Besl 1990). Their analyses (Kosentka et al. 2013) also suggested that the loss of muscarine is a requirement to have psilocybin in Inocybe species.

Species Descriptions

Inocybe abjecta P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 32: 456 (1879)
Pileus 10- 25 mm, subconieal or subeampanulate when young, then convex to plano-convex, umbonate, brown, somewhat paler when dry, sometimes darkest around centre, squamulose-squarrose, at margin not rimulose, sometimes covered with a white-fibrillose velipellis, and this most conspicuous around centre, and disappearing with age or persistent. Lamellae moderately crowded, to 3 mm broad, subventricose, adnate, brown, finally olivaceous-tinged dark brown; edge fimbriate, whitish. Stipe 30-45 x2-4 mm, equal, solid, pale brown, somewhat darker brown in middle part, somewhat pruinose near apex, almost smooth downwards. Cortina present in young specimens.
Spores (10.0- )10.5-13.5(- 14.0) x 6.0-7.0(-7.5) um, on average 1\.0- 12.3 × 6.3-6.7 JAm, Q =1.6- 1.9(-2.0), Q = 1.8-1.9, smooth, (sub)amygdaliform, with subconical apex. Pleurocystidia (51-)54-80(-86) x(13-)14-20(-21) um, cylindrical,(slenderly) utriform, sometimes sublageniform, a few with subcapitate apex, slightly thick-walled, with up to 1.0(- 1.5) ~m thick, colourless or pale yellowish wall, hardly erystalliferous at apex, moderately frequent. Cheiloeystidia similar to pleuroeystidia, moderately scarce. Paracystidia slenderly clavate, thin-walled, colourless, abundant. Basidia 35-42 × 10- 12 um, 4-spored. Stipe at apex with caulocystidia, sometimes only at extreme apex, sometimes descending to 1/6th of stipe, similar to cheilocystidia, mixed with cauloparacystidia.
HABITAT&. DISTRIBUTION. – Under coniferous trees on bare soil or between mosses. Very rare in Europe; known from Finland, Switzerland, and the Soviet Union. July-Sept.
Note: The macroscopical description is a compilation of the original prolologues. It should be remarked, however, that there is some variation in macroscopical characters, especially with regard to pileal colour. This variation is probably caused only by the development of the velipellis, and for that reason Jassume that not much taxonomic value should be attached to that character. More material might show constant differences, justifying then a treatment of infraspecific taxa.

Inocybe aeruginascens Babos, Bohus, Bot. Közl. 57(1): 21 (1970)
Pileus 2-3-(4,5)cm in diam., at first obtusely conical, then in the middle umbonate, margin sometimes inflexed, ochreous yellow, ferrugineous ochre, yellowish-brown, or ferrugineous brown, usually vivid in colour, umbo a little darker and sometimes olive greenish, dry, silky, in the middle usually smooth, towards the margin finely radially fibrillose or rimoso-fibrillose. The olive greenish tinge of the pileus disappears during exsiccation, ramaining only rarely visible. Gills up to 3mm deep, at first pallid, then argillaceous brown, olive brown or tobacco brown.
Stipe 2,5-7 cm high, 2-6 mm wide, whitish-cream coloured, later light ochre or dirty ochre, when young and untouched only occasionally with a pale greenish tinge, but later or when touched becoming partially bluish green, equal or downwards a little attenuated, bulbous or not.
Flesh thin, whitish, with a greenish to bluish-green tinge in the stipe, but this colour mostly disappearing during the exsiccation.
Smell indistinctive. Spore print brown.
Cuticle formed of brownish-yellow hyphae, 3-10-(12) µm wide, with clamp connections. Gill trama rather regular. Cheilocystidia 18-31 × 8-14 µ m, thin walled, vesciculose to clavate. Basidia 20-23 × 6-8 µ m, clavate, 4-spored. Spores 7-10 × 4-5 µ m, ellipsoid to almondshaped, light brownish-yellow.
DISTRIBUTION: The mushroom species was first found by J. Ferencz in Osca, Hungary, on June 15, 1965. That same year, as well as on several occasions later on, Hungarian mycologists found large numbers of mushrooms growing in different locations mainly in plantations of Populus around Budapest (Babos, 1968; Bohus et al., 1977; Gartz et al., 1986; Gartz, 1995).
In 1975, the Inocybe species was collected in Eastern Berlin for the first time. But a careful analysis of material from herbarium has shown that the mushrooms were already found in this area some years ago. So it is unclear if the species comes originally from Hungary or from other parts of Europe. During the 1980s Inocybe aeruginascens could be found in abundance at countless new locations around Berlin and Budapest. Finally, a few fruiting bodies each were also collected in Holland (1980), the Rhone Valley (Switzerland, 1984) and perhaps at the coast of the Ostsee (Germany). Its occurrence is to be expected also in other countries.
ECOLOGY: Growing on moist sand near the roots of different deciduous trees (Populus, Tilia, Quercus, Betula), mainly in May/June but till October in some years, in parks and gardens.

Inocybe albovelutipes Stangl, in Stangl, Winterhoff & Schwöbel, Z. Mykol. 46(2): 166 (1980)
Pileus 30-50 mm, convex to plano-convex with low broad umbo, yellowish buff to ochraceous butt, rather pale, old specimens somewhat darker, ochraceous brown, minutely to rather coarsely woolly-tomentose, at margin not ri!\lulose, dull, sometimes covered with thin velipellis causing greyish hue. Lamellae, L = 50-70, I =1-3, moderally crowded, 4-5 mm broad, (sub)ventricose, narrowly adnate, greyish brown, in old specimens with a faint olivaceous tinge; edge fimbriate, white . Stipe 40-45 × 6-9 mm, equal or somewhat attenuated below, sometimes with a slightly swollen base, but not bulbous, solid, whitish when young, then pale yellow-brown, sometime with pinkish tinge near apex, with white-fibrillose covering, at apex not pruinose. Cortina present in young specimens. Context whitish. Smell faint, subspermatic. Taste not recorded.
Spores 8.0-10.0 × 4.5-6.0 pm, on average 8.8-9.3 × 5.0-5.4 J.lm, Q = 1.6-1.9, Q = 1.7-1.8, smooth, regular (Q subamygdaliform, with subconical apex. Pleurocystidia (42-)46-69(-74) x 11-17(-19) J.lm, cylindrico-clavate, slenderly clavate to slenderly subfusiform or subutriform, a minority subcapitate, slightly thick-walled, with usually less then 0.5 J.lm, sometimes up 10 1.0 J.lm thick, colourless wall, crystaltiferous at apex, rather frequent. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, not frequent. Paracystidia clalvate to cylindrical, thin-walled, colourless, abundant. Basidia 25-38 × 7-10 pm, 4-spored. Caulocystidia absent, at extreme apex only rather undifferentiated caulocystidioid hairs present.
HABITAT & DISTRIBUTION. – Under frondose and coniferous trees on sandy soil. Associated with Quercus, Fagus, PiIlUS, and Picea. Rare in Europe, known from three localities in the Netherlands. Aug.-Ocl.
Note: Inocybe a/bove/ulipes comes very close to I. monochroa J. Favre (see p. 119). On account of differences in spore and cystidial characters both taxa are accepted as autonomous species, but more material might well indicate that they are merely infraspecific taxa of one species.

Inocybe amazoniensis Singer & I.J.A. Aguiar, in Singer, Araujo & Ivory, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 77: 182 (1983)
Pileus 5-10 mm diam, conical, expanding in age with nipple-like umbonate disc; margin decurved to straight, undulating, entire at first but later torn and rimose with striate appearance; surface dry, fibrillose, breaking up into appressed scurfy scales in age; light brown or brown to yellowish brown or near Tawny-Olive, pallid between spreading fibrils towards the margin; context very thin, odor salty or sweaty, taste none. Lamellae adnexed to sinuate, seceding in age, subdistant to moderately close, with several tiers of lamellulae; pale brown to yellowish brown, edges white and fimbriate but less obvious so with age. Stipe 20-23 × 1 mm, widest at the apex, tapered towards the base, flexuous, whitish fibrillose, pallid overall, nowhere pruinose, cortina probably evanescent though not directly observed.
Basidiospores 6.5-7.8-8.5 ± 0.57 x (5.0-) 5.5-6.0-6.5 ± 0.45 mm, Q = (1.08-) 1.14-1.29-1.42 ± 0.09 (n=30/2), nodulose around mostly subelliptic outline with mostly 8-11 distinct or moderate-sized nodules, apiculus distinct, light yellowish brown or ochraceous-buff. Basidia 21-28 x 7-9 mm, 4-sterigmate, clavate, hyaline or filled with yellowish-ochre content when collapsed. Pleurocystidia 42-59 x 10-15 mm, fusiform to cylindric, necks not differentiated, apices obtuse and sparsely crystalliferous or most often bare, with a short basal pedicel; thick-walled, walls 1.0-2.5 mm thick apically, thin-walled towards the pedicel; hyaline to pale yellow. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia but shorter; paracystidia clavate, thin-walled, hyaline. Lamellar trama composed of parallel hyphae that are cylindric to inflated, up to 18 mm diam, almost hyaline or pale yellowish brown in mass. Pileipellis a cutis composed of cylindric to inflated hyphae up to 22 mm diam, thin-walled or at times slightly thickened at septa, hyphae incrusted, pale yellowish brown in mass. Stipitipellis lacking any caulocystidia, refractive hyphae not observed. Clamp connections present.
Observations: The macroscopic features are based on material from Guyana. Microscopic details are a composite of our examination of the paratype from Brazil and MCA3142 from Guyana, which are in excellent agreement. Inocybe amazoniensis is characterized by a small hygrophanous pileus, a conspicuous papilla or nipple-like umbo on the disc of the pileus, the tapered stipe, nodulose spores, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, absence of caulocystidia, and a putative ECM association with Fabaceae, features shared by the Guyana material. LSU data of I. amazoniensis suggest the species may be most closely related to I. epidendron Matheny, Aime & T.W. Henkel (97% pair-wise similarity based on a BLASTn search). This is not surprising as a close relationship was suggested between the two by Matheny et al. (2003). Inocybe epidendron differs from I. amazoniensis by the scaly pileus and occurrence on trunks of Dicymbe or woody debris. Inocybe amazoniensis features a non-scaly pileus and appears terrestrial.
Phenology: May to June.
Habitat and Geographical Distribution: on ground in association with leguminous host genera Dicymbe in Guyana and Aldina in campinarana vegetation in Brazil.

Inocybe apiosmota Grund & D.E. Stuntz, Mycologia 67: 21 (1975)
Pileus 2-3cm broad. convex becoming expanded with broad umbo and shallowly rounded margin. squarrose at center. coarsely lacerate-fibrillose on the margin, reddish brown “Argus Brown,” context l-l.5 mm off the disc, soft. hufl’. odor aromatic. of pears. Lamellae adnate, rather broad, subdistant, rather thick, “Argus Brown.” edges concolorous. Stipe 4-55. cm long. 3-4 mm thick. equal. basal 0.5-1 cm slightly incrassated, hollow: context buff with a slight greenish cast, unchanging: surface densely and coarsely squarrose. apex fibrillose, color of stipe “Raw Umber."
Spores from 4-sterigmate hasidia 10-12 × 55-65 am. mostly ll x 6 pit, from 2-sterigmate hasidia 13-145 >< 6.5-8 pm. phaseoliform; basidia 38-47 X 8-10 pm, narrowly clavate. mostly with four sterigmata. but two sterigmata not uncommon: pleurocystidia lacking: cheilocystidia 40-50 × 12-17 pm, clavate. brown. mixed with many basidia along the lamellar edge; lamellar trama of parallel. hyaline hyphae 5-12 pm broad. cylindrical to slightly swollen cells: apex of stipe with patches of tangled superficial hyphae with terminal cystidioid cells and clusters of slender. cylindric. hyaline caulocystidia so intermingled as to make the origin of the cells diflicult to ascertain; base of stipe with coarse streaks of brown. Heavily encrusted, more or less agglutinated hyphae. No dermatocaulocystidia; cuticle of pileus a layer 90-200 pm deep of heavily encrusted, brown hyphae, more or less radially oriented and parallel to the surface, tending to split along horizontal planes to form the scales.

Inocybe araneosa Matheny & Bougher, Fungi of Australia: Inocybaceae: 439 (2017)
Description needed.

Inocybe calamistrata (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet
Pileus 10-38 mm,campanulato-convex to convex, not or only indistinctly umbonate, margin inflexed when young, brown to isabella-brown, but somewhat darker around centre, recurvately scaly around centre, outwards more subsquarrosc to even coarsely squamulose; velipellis not observed. Lamellae, L =30-45, 1=1- 3, to 6 mm broad, not or hardly ventricose, rather broadly adnate, cinnamon-brown to brown, finally even with an olivaeeous tinge; edge fimbriate to Ilocculose. white. Stipe 25-92 × 2-6 mm, equal or attenuated near base, solid, then becoming somewhat fistulose, pale brown at apex, brown half-way, discolouring in lower half to greenish blue or dark greyish green, sometimes even olivaceous black at base, coarsely squamulose to indistinctly squarrose in lower half, at apex minutely pruinose-subflocculose. Context whitish in pileus and apex of stipe. On exposure soon discolouring to pinkish or pale vinaccous, bluish green in lower part of stipe. Smell faint, acidulous a sweetish component, PeJargol1;’um-like or reminding of I. bongonlii var. bongardii, sometimes disagreeable, somewhat fishy. Taste indistinct.
Spores (9.5-)10.0-13.5(-14.0) x 5.0-6.0{-6.5) pm, on average 10.5-12.3 × 5.3-5.9 j.lffi, Q =(1.7-) 1.8-2.6, Q =1.8-2.3, smooth, subphaseoliform. Pleurocystidia absent. Cheilocystidia 30-54(-55) x (7-)8-11(-13) pm, (broadly) cylindrical, thin-walled, sometimes with brown contents. Basidia 30-41 × 8-10 #-1m, 4-spored. Caulocystidia only present al (extreme) apex of stipe, similar to cheilocystidia.
HABITAT & DISTRIBUTION. – In moist forests on rather nutrient-poor soil; associated with Salix, Alnus. Pinus, and Picea. Widespread in Europe, also occurring in North America, India and Japan. Uncommon in the Netherlands. June-Sept.

Inocybe calamistratoides E. Horak, N.Z. Jl Bot. 15(4): 7161 (1978)
Pileus 35 mm diam., convex to umbonate-expanded or campanulate; pale brown. brown or fuscous, often with greenish or olive tinge; dry. densely covered all over with coarse. squarrose scales and squamules; margin estriate. veil remnants absent. Lamellae adnexed to adnate. ventricose, crowded; pale beige-ochraceous or beige-yellow. turning argillaceous or brown. reddening after bruising. edge albo-fimbriate. Stipe 65 × 5 mm, cylindrical. equal: con-colorous with pileus or paler. black-green at base, covered with concolorous scales and squamules; dry. becoming hollow. single and cespitose. Context brown. reddening after exposure, black-green at base. Odour and taste fruity. Chemical reactions on pileus: KOH- negative.
Spores 9-11.5 × 5-6.5 um, reniform to phaseoliform. brown. smooth. Basidia 30-40 × 6-8p.m. 4- spored. Cheilocystidia 20-40 × 6-10 um. clavate to subfusoid, hyaline, thin-walled, scattered on edge. Pleurocystidia absent. Cuticle a trichoderm of cylindrical. not gelatinised hyphae (4-8um diam.). encrusted with yellow-brown (KOH) pigment. Clamp connections present.
HABITAT: On soil among moss and litter of Notho-faglls (N. fllsca, N. melltiesii). New Zealand.
This species is well characterised by the reddening context in the pileus and stipe. This is reminiscent of I. bongardi (Weinm.) QueSt. and I. cenicolor (Pers. ex Pers.) Quel., two taxa which occur in coniferous and deciduous forests of Eurasia, but spores and cheilocystidia of this New Zealand fungus are considerably smaller.

Inocybe coelestium Kuyper, Persoonia 12 (4): 479 (1985)
Pileus 15-32 mm. conico-convex, convex to piano-convex, margin reflexed when
young, straight later on. without or with low broad umbo. not appendiculate at margin, ochraceous brown, at centre with (pale) greenish-greyish tinges, sometimes almost whitish around disc. coarsely woolly-felty to recurvately squamulose-subsquarrose. but subtomentose around disc because of velipellis. Lamellae, L = 45-60, 1 = 3~5, thin. very crowded. very narrow. segmentilform, l-3 mm broad, rather broadly adnexed, yellowish-greyish, then sordid brown edge almost even to fimbriate, concolorous to whitish. Stipe 23-52 × 3—5 mm, equal to subbulbous (5—6 mm), solid, apex white to pale ochraceous, brownish halfway. at base mixed with greenish-greyish tinges. darkening on age. and becoming dark olivaceous grey, at apex smooth to hairy, not pruinose, downwards with aeriferous longitudinal striation or smooth. Context whitish in pileus, brown with a greyish-greenish tinge in stipe, not reddening on exposure. Smell faint, as Peruvian balsam. sometimes also with a faint, disagreeable chemical component.
Spores (7.0~-)7.S—9.0(—9.5) x S.O—6.0(—6.S) pm, on average 7.7~ 8.5 × 5.5—6.0um, 0 = l.3—l.6. O = l.4- 1.5, smooth, subamygdaliform, not Iimoniform. with sub-conical apex. Pleurocystida (29—)3]——53(—6S) x (lO~-)ll~ l6(~18) um, cylindrical, somewhat thick-walled, wall to 2.0(-—2.S) pm thick, hyaline to very pale yellow, crystalliferous at apex, but sometimes hardly so, moderately abundant. Cheilocystidia identical to pleurocystida scarce. Paracystidia (slenderly) clavate, thin walled hyaline, abundant. Pigment of pileipellis not encrusting. Caulocystidia absent, stipe-apex with scattered, rather undifferentiated to caulocystidiod hairs, without paracystidia, downwards soon disappearing.
Habitat & Distribution: Under deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous (Picea abies) trees on calcareous soil. Known from Austria and Germany Aug.-Oct.

Inocybe calospora Quél., in Bresadola, Fung. trident. 1(1): 19 (1881)
Pileus 10-20 mmin diam, broadly campanulate becoming expanded with a small papillate umbo, entirely covered with tiny, flat, revolute squamules, appressed rimose on the margin or not, dark brown (“bister”) fading to paler brown (“Sayal brown,”); context 1mm or less off the disc, palliddingy yellow, un- changing; odor not notable. Lamellae narrowly adnate, broadly rounded at the stipe, bluntly pointed at the pileus margin, ventricose, moderately broad (3.5 mm), pale grayish, becoming dingy olivaceous brown. Stipe 17-60 mm long, 0.5-2.5 mm thick, cylindrical, straight, equal, with a basallow-rounded rim, squarely truncate beneath the rim; surfacesatiny, striolate and shining finely longitudinally hygrophanous streaked,entirely but sparsely pallid pruinose,the pruina less abundant toward the base, red brown (“Verona brown,”) fadingto pale yellowish or grayish tan; content con-colorous, unchanging on exposure.
Spores 10-13.5 9-11 1um (includingthe spines), globose to broadly
with about 20-30 blunt 2-3 ,m basidia ellipsoidal, cylindric, spines long;
33-41 × 10-12 ,um, clavate, with four sterigmata; pleurocystidia 35-
55 × 10-17 fusoid to clavate above a or downward- tm, long,cylindrical
tapering pedicel, with bluntly rounded, slightly incrusted apex and
hyalinewalls 1-2 /umthick;edge of lamellae with clusters of similar
and clavate sterile cells. Lamellar trama cystidia shorter, thin-walled,
parallel, compact, of slender cylindrical hyphae and occasional laticifer-
ous hyphae. Apex of stipe with clusters of cystidia like the pleurocystidia in size and and clavate sterile base of with stipe shape shorter, thin-walled, cells; clavate 27-44 × 8-14 scattered, thin-walled, cystidia jtm. hyphae more or less parallel to the surface, consistingof cylindricto fusoidor ellipsoidcells 7-28 /m in diam and with brown membrane pigment and brown pigment in crustations, ending to split horizontally into flat plaques with revolute tips, forming the pileal squamules.
Loosely gregarious on wet soil along a road under beech, maple, and aspen: August.

Inocybe corydalina Quélet, Mem. Soc. Émul. Montbiliard, Ser. 2 5: 543: 1872.
Pileus 4.0-6.0 (7.0) cm broad, campanulate in youth, becoming broadly convex to nearly plane, often with a low umbo; margin at first incurved, then decurved, occasionally wavy and rimose; central cap covered with a thin whitish veil, tinged blue-grey, overlying a brown, appressed-fibrillose to squamulose surface apparent towards the margin; context up to 5.0 mm thick at disc, whitish to pale pinkish-buff in some areas, bluish-grey below the disc; odor strong, similar to matsutake, or rotting pears; taste not distinctive.
Gills close, adnexed to notched, pallid, becoming dingy tan-brown, up to 7 mm broad; edges minutely scalloped, not distinctly lighter than the faces; lamellulae in three to four series.
Stipe 4.0-9.0 cm long, 1.0-2.0 cm thick, round, solid, straight, occasionally with a basal bend and small bulb; surface of apex pruinose when young, whitish, elsewhere finely striate, the lower portion covered with loose brown fibrils, bruising dark-brown where handled, the base often tinged blue-grey; context fleshy-fibrous, pallid, unchanging to slowly pale-brown; partial veil absent.
Spores 7.5-11.0 × 5.0-6.0 µm, smooth, moderately thick-walled, elliptical to almond-shaped in face-view, inequilateral, sometimes subfusiform, hilar appendage inconspicuous; spores olive-brown in deposit; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia present but uncommon.
Habitat: Solitary or in small groups in mixed hardwood/conifer woods, probably associated with oaks; found in the Coast Ranges and low to mid-elevations of the Sierra Nevada; fruiting after the fall rains; occasional.
Edibility: To be avoided. One study has shown small amounts of psilocybin, another study showed no psilocybin, but the toxin muscarine.
Comments: Color and a distinctive odor make Inocybe corydalina relatively easy to identify. Fresh specimens have a central cap covered with a bluish-grey tinged veil and a concolorous stipe base. Combined with a strong “matsutake like” odor, it is unlikely to be confused with any other Inocybe except perhaps Inocybe calamistrata which has a bluish-grey stipe base but lacks the characteristic odor of I. corydalina. Inocybe calamistrata also differs in having a darker brown, more squamulose, veil-less cap. An Inocybe that does mimic the odor of Inocybe corydalina is Inocybe fraudans (=I. pyriodora). It is distinguished by an ochre-brown fibrillose cap lacking bluish-grey tones.

Inocybe cyaneovirescens Henn. Bot. Jb. 28(3): 323 (1900)
(Complete English Description Needed) See

Inocybe cyanotrichia Matheny, Bougher & G.M. Gates Fungi of Australia: Inocybaceae (Melbourne): 457 (2017)
(Description Needed.)

Inocybe erinaceomorpha Stangl & J. Veselský, Ceská Mykologie 33 (2): 72 (1979)
[Description From Suppl. Persoonia Vol. 3, 1986 as Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha (Stangl & Veselsky) Kuyp.]:
Pileus 38-52 mm, convex, plano-convex to almost applanate, when young with involute margin, straight later on, margin extending somewhat beyond lamellae, sometimes even denticulate, umbonate or not, dark brown to almost blackish brown at centre, outwards brown to brownish buff, with appressed, polygonal or somewhat irregular scales at centre, towards margin squamulose or fibrillose-subsquamose, with pileipellis later excoriate in outer half; velipellis usually absent, in one collection present but rather indistinct, slightly greenish-tinged grey. Lamellae, L = 50-75, 1= 1-3, crowded, 3-5 mm broad, subventrieose, narrowly adnate, buff, pale brown or pale greyish brown, with minutely fimbriate, eoncolorous or paler edge. Stipe 39-85 × 5-8 mm, cylindrical or broadened at apex and somewhat taperibelow, at first whitish, then sordid greyish buff or sordid brownish, white at apex, sometimes with reddish tinges, exceptionally with greenish-greyish tinges at base, at apex minutely hairy under lens, downwards indistinctly fibrillose. Context whitish to pale greyish buff, only slightly reddening on exposure. Smell faint to strong, of Peruvian balsam. Taste indistinct.
Spores 7.0-10.0(- 10.5) X 5.0-6.0 ,urn , on average 7.8-9.4 × 5.1-5.8 ,urn, Q = 1.4-1.7(-1.8), Q 1.5-1.6, smooth, (sub)amygdaliform, with (sub)conical apex. Pleurocystidia (36-)37-64(-70) x 10-16(-18) ,um, cylindrical to slenderly fusiform, thick-walled, with wall up to 2.0 ,urn thick, colourless to very pale yellow, at apex not or hardly crystalliferous, scarce. Cheiloeystidia similar to pleurocystidia, (very) scarce. Paracystidia clavate, thin-walled, hyaline, abundant. Basidia 27-34 × 8-\0 ,um, 4-spored. Caulocystidia absent, at extreme apex only some undifferentiated hairs present.
HABITAT & DISTRIBUTION. – Under frondose trees, but occasionally also under coniferous trees on calcareous, nutrient-rich soil. Associated with Fagus, Carpinus, Querclls, and Picea. Widesprcad in Europe, rare in the Netherlands on alluvial, clayey soil. Aug.-Oct.

Inocybe fastigiata (Schaeff.) Quél., Mémoires de la Société d’Émulation de Montbéliard 5: 180 (1872)
Description needed.

Inocybe fulvella Bres., Fung. trident. 2(8-10): 16 (1892)
Pileus 8-10mm in diam, broadly campanulate and umbonate margin
rounded, expanding and becoming flat; squarrose on the disc, appressed fibrilloseand rimoseelsewhere, uniformly reddishumber; context0.5 mm off the disc, white, unchanging; odorspermatic. Lamellae adnate, subdistant, (4 x2 mm), at first grayish lavender becoming pale grayish olivaceous beige. Stipe 2 cm long, 1-1.5 mmthick, cylindricale, qual, base not bulbous or enlarged, apex sparsely pruinose, elsewhere fibrillose streaked, satiny beneath the fibrils, grayish lavender, tinged with umber toward the base; context grayish lavender above, tinged umber at the base.
Spores8-10×6-7um mostly9x6tm, angularinoutline, with about seven to obtuse nodules; basidia 23-33 × 8-11 eight prominent,,m, shortclavate, withfoursterigmata; pleurocystidia rather sparse,
48-62 X 9-16 55-60 × 13-14 pmn, ventricoseabove /Amm,ostly hyaline,
a taperingpedicel,withbluntlyroundedapex, occasionally with a
shortcylindricanleck,usuallyincrustedatapex; edge of lamellaewith
clusters a few like the 40-50 x comprising cystidia pleurocystidia,
of thin-walledsterilecells preponderance diversiform, 12-18 um and a 22-40 × 9-14 /um,occasional basidia also present in the clusters.
Lamellar trama parallel,compact,ofhyphae5.5-9 tmdiam, comprised of to inflatedor fusoidcells to 19 jm in diam. cylindrical slightly up Apex of stipe with rathersparse clustersof thin-walled, articulated to five 10-110X5.5-9unm, metuloids; base (two cells), cystidia lacking
of stipe with scattered strands of superficial hyphae, lacking dermato-caulocystidia. Pileal surface layer about 175 /m deep on the disc,
splitting there into recurvedsquarrae, becomingthinner and hyphae more repent toward the margin where they forma layer33-70 um deep, composed of somewhat swollen cells 5-9um in diam, with brown membrana pigment and brown pigment incrustations.

Inocybe glabripes Ricken, Die Blätterpilze 1: 107 (1915)
Pileus 9-31 mm, convex, soon spreading, finally applanate, only indistinctly umbonate, margin innexed when young, soon straight, dark brown to brown at centre, somewhat paler at outer half, radially fibrillose, sometimes minutely squamulose in centre, with diverging fibrils and at margin somewhat rimulose, in young specimens sometimes with an indistinct greyish velipellis. Lamellae, L = 30-40, I = 1-3, moderately crowded to subdistant, 2-5 mm broad, somewhat ventricose, narrowly to rather broadly adnate, ochraceolls brown, sometimes with an olivaceous tinge; edge almost even to subfimbriate, slightly paler to whitish. Stipe 20-42 × 2-3 mill, equal to subbulbous (4 mm), solid, warm ochraceous or more honey-coloured, minutely hairy at extreme apex, not truly pruinose, downwards aeriferous-fibrillose, but soon smooth. Cortina present in young specimens. Context whitish in pileus, pale ochraceous in stipe. Smell when cut spermatic, sometimes somewhat acidulous on drying. Taste not distinct.
Spores (6.0-)6.5-8.0 × 4.0-5.0 pm, on average 6.9-7.5 X4.4-4.6 pm, Q =(1.4-)1.5-1.7, Q= 1.6, smooth, regular to subamygdaliform, with (sub)conical apex. Pleurocystidia (41-)42-66(-67) x (10-)11-17(-18) /-1m, cylindrical to subfusiform, sometimes even subla- genifo rm , thick-walled, wall to 2.0(-2.5) pm, almost colo urless to pale yellow, sparsely crystalliferous at apex, rather frequent. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, infrequent. Paracystidia (slenderly) clavate, thin-walled, colourless, abundant. Basidia 22-28 × 7-9 /um, 4-spored. Caulocystidia present in apical part, descending to less than [18th of length, morc or less similar to chcilocystidia or somewhat more irregulalr. but sometimes completely lacking.
HABITAT & DISTRIBUTION. – Under frondose trees, preferably in parks but also in more natural vegetation. Associated with Betula, Fagus. and Quercus. Widespread in West and Central Europe. Not rare in the Netherlands. June-Sept.
Notes: I. Alessio (Iconogr. myco!. 29: 290. 1980) asserted that two taxa could be separated on specific level, viz. I. microspora and I. parvispora. The main difference between those taxa was said to lie in the dimensions of the pleurocystidia, although some smaller differences in habit were reported too. However, my observations are clearly contrary to those of Alessio, as I found an almost continuous series of cystidiallength in different collections of this small-spored taxon. For that reason I. parvispora Alessio has to be placed in the synonymy of I. glabripes.
2. This species is easily recognisable by its very small spores that are on average less than 8.0 j.lm. Two other small-spored species, viz. 1. albomarginata Velen. and I. langei R. Heim differ in having the stipe pruinose throughout and in the lack of a cortina.
3. This species has up to now been called I. microspora J. Lange. However, there can be not much doubt that Ricken (BUitterpilze: 107. 1915) had described the same species two years earlier. Unfortunately his new species has been completely overlooked.

Inocybe griseoscabrosa (Peck) Earle, Torreya 3(11): 169 (1903)
Pileus 11 mm in diam, convex, squarrose on the disc, elsewhere squamose, the squamaewithascendingtips, gray when fresh, the context underlying the surface pallid grayish brown, more nearly with the brownish color when, ground predominating dried; context1 mmor less off the disc, pallid; odorand taste not recorded. Lamellae broadly adnate, broad, convex, olivaceous umber with whiteedges. Stipe25 mmtall,2 mmthick, cylindrice, qual, not bulbous atthebase,surfacedenselystreakedwith whitefibrilsw, hite at apex and below,lowertwo-thirdbsearing whitestreakson a grayish umber ground color, darkening somewhat toward the base; context pallidwithin, thesurfacelayer and some underlying contextbrown. 10-13 × 5.5-6.5 11-12 × 5.5-6
Spores Mtm,ostly ,m, inequilaterally with halfor third and a amygdaliform, bluntlytaperedapical supra- 9-10(-11) hilar or dorsal basidia x depression flattening; 22-28(-35) um, clavate, with four sterigmata; pleurocystidi4a7-66(-70) x 13-20 Mm, mostly55-60x 15-16.5 Mm, narrowly to broadly fusiform above a
short pedicel, bluntly rounded at the apex, thinwalled (less than 1.0
,umthick); like the x 19-22 Mm), cheilocystidia pleurocystidia(45-55
usually intermingled with many shorter,thin-walled,clavate sterile
cells(25-45 × 12-18Mm). Lamellar trama parallel, compact, of hyphae 8-16 Mm in diam, composed mostly of narrowly fusoid cells about 30-35 × 15-16.5 jm. Apex of stipe with a dense palisade of thin-walled, versiform cystidia which are narrowly cylindric to broadly fusiform and 35-100x 10-25 um, occasionally with clavate shorter cells; base of stipe with abundant superficial hyphae, lacking cystidia. Pileal surfacea dense palisade trichodermium 400-600 tLm deep on the disc, erect at center and splitting into pyramidal squarrae, more repent toward the margin, elements of the trichodermium with abundant, large, versiform, cystidioid terminal cells.
Solitary on the groundin mixed deciduous woods: August.
Kauffman reports this species from New York and Oregon. We believe ours to be the first report of it from Canada. Our specimen was compared directly with the type collection, to which it corresponds exactly bothin macroscopicappearanceand in microscopical features. The small size, gray, conspicuously squarrose to squamose and white-fibrillose are its distinctive densely stipe macroscopic pileus, features, and the large spores, thin-walledcystidia, and trichodermal
elements with conspicuous cystidioid terminal cells distinguish it macroscopically.

Inocybe haemacta (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 763 (1887)
Medium. Cap 2 1/4 × 4 3/4 cm, convex flat, with a low umbo, at first grayish brown, tomentose squamulose with adpressed scales (edge somewhat fibrillose), then shaggy-fibril­ lose by cigar-brown fibrils on a whitish ground which at last becomes red. Gills pallid, with a whitish edge, becoming grayish brown or (with age) flushed with red tones. Stem rather thin (4-5 1/2 cm X 3-4 mm), slightly incrassated towards the base, pallid, soon beco­ming flushed (from base up) with a greenish-gray colour, while the very minute fibrils and flocci are tinted a darker gray. The base remains white, slightly tomentose. The colour of the flesh of the stem is greenish like the outside, that of the cap becomes a deep and bright pink or almost cherry-red. Smell and taste almost wanting.
Spores obliquely ovate or sub-limoniform, 9 1/2 X 6 um (or 8-10 × 5 1/2 – 6). Cystidia narrowly bottle-shaped, 65 – 95 X 12 – 18 um. Paracystidia inflated clavate or almost ovate, I4-20 um broad.
Rare. Met with at Tiselholt (Oct. 1935), growing gregariously in wood of Fagus, in a deep bed of dead foliage on humous ground. (Also recorded from Jylland (Poul LARSEN)).
Notes From Flora Agaricina Danica (Lange):
A very characteristic species, microscopically very close to the preceding one, but easily recognised by the greenish tinge on the stem, the deep pink tones, the smaller size and its lack of fruity smell. The figures of CooKE depict as well specimens very much like mine as a more stoutish form, more like I. corydalina in stature. Heim regards it as a mere form of I. corydalina. But the lack of smell as well as the other distinctive characters make me reluctant to follow him in this.

Inocybe hirsuta Mém. Soc. Émul. Montbéliard, Sér. 2 5: 178 (1872)
IS Note: This name is perhaps incorrectly in synonymy with Inocybe calamistrata, as preferred by some collectors and authors. More data needed. There are two varieties of Inocybe hirsuta: var. maxima A.H. Sm., Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 24(1): 96 (1939) 1938 and var. hirsuta Quél., Mém. Soc. Émul. Montbéliard, Sér. 2 5: 178 (1872). The variety maxima is the name asociated with psilocybin and Inocybe calamistrata.
Pileus 1.0-3.5cm in diam, convex or obtusely campanulate, becoming expanded with broadly rounded umbo and broadly down-curved margin, squarrose, with recurved scales overall, or only on the disc and appressed scaly elsewhere with the margin fibrillose rimose, reddish brown (6E6, “Argusbrown,”“russetbrown,”“Mars brown”), in some darker brown on disc (6F5, 6) and paler ("ochraceoustawny, "6D5) on the margin; context 1-2.5 mm off the disc, pallid under the red-brown(5C5) surface layer, becoming red where exposed or bruised; odor of raw fish, usually also witha strong resinous component. Lamellae narrowly adnate, bluntly pointed at the pileus margin, narrow (16 × 4 mm), white to pallid (5Y, 8/2), becoming red brown (6E4), or red where bruised. Stipe 4-7.5 cm long, 3-5 mm thick, cylindrical, equal, slightly incrassated (not bulbous) at the base or not, densely floccose squarrose when young in all but the apical 2-3 mm, the squarrae becoming more widely spaced upon expansion of the stipe; squarrae reddish brown or reddish cinnamonon a pallid ground color, then dingy brown with age; apex with reddish-cinnamon so; basal 1-3 cm pallid squarrulae, remaining
dull gray green (2C6, D3); context pallid to pallid brownish above, dull green below, becoming red where exposed or bruised.
Spores 8-12 × 5.0-6.5 tm, mostly 10-11 × 5.5-6 ,um, subreniform, occasionally subellipsoid with suprahilar depression; basidia 27-38 × 8-9 withfour lacking; tm,narrowly clavate, sterigmata pleurocystidia cheilocystidia 22-58 × 8-16.5 um, mostly 33-50 × 11-13 pum, sub-cylindric, clavate, frequently capitate, hyaline; lamellar trama sub-parallel, rather loosely arrangedt,he hyphae of cells varying from narrow cylindricones 5-10jm in diam to very large fusoid elements 90-190x 24-29 Jum. Apex of stipe with scattered clusters of narrowly clavate, thin-walledcystidia33-100 × 9-13 ,m; base of stipe with squamae ofsamecompositionas thepilealsurface,lackingcystidia. Surface of pileus a layer about 360/m deep of hyphae radially oriented and more or less parallel to the surface,composedof subfusoid cells 55-100 X 9-13 um, with brown membrana pigment and conspicuous banded incrustations of brown pigment, the layer splitting horizontally into plaques that become ascending to form the squarrae on the disc, and more repent with recurved tips toward the margin.
Solitary or gregarious on the ground under hemlock: August.
This member of the Inocybe calamistrata complex, common in the west, has not been reported previously from Canada as far as we know. Its distinguishing features are the decidedly red-brown color of the pileus, conspicuous rubescence of the context and lamellae,strongfishy- resinuous odor, and dull green color of the lower part of the stipe(when present). In the protologue, Smith (13) does not mention the rubescence of the context and says that the base of the stipe lacks the green color that characterizes I. calamistrata. From a long acquaintance with this fungus the second author finds that the green color is sometimes absent but more frequentlypresentand that the other characteristics mentionedabove are constant. Seen separately on different occasions, Inocybe calamistrata and I. hirsuta var. maxima might seem practically identical, but if the two are compared side by side, the striking difference in color (red-brown for I. hirsutavar. maxima, umber or fuscous for I. calamistrata) is immediately evident and provides the clue for distinguishing the two taxa thereafter.

Inocybe hygrophana Glowinski & Stangl, in Stangl & Glowinski, Karstenia 21(1): 27 (1981)
Pileus 15-30mm, conical, than conico-convex, more or less distinctly umbonate, margin somewhat inflexed when young, then straight,when moist dark sepiaceous brown, in marginal part with violaceous tinges, hygrophanous, pallescent on drying to dirty ochraceous, often mixed with ferrugineous tinges, tomentose, outwards only indistinctly fibrillose, at margin not rimulose, with indistinct greyish patches of velipellis around centre, not translucently striate at margin. Lamellae moderately crowded, to 4mm broad, notventricose, rather narrowly adnate to almost free, when young pale bluish-violaceous, then greyish buff to pale brown; edge fimbriate, whitish. Stipe 20-30×2-5 mm, equal or slightly attenuated towards base, or somewhat broadened-subbulbousatbase, when young pale bluish-violaceous, then becoming brown, pruinose in apical part (descending to about l/8th), below almost smooth to indistinctly radially fibrillose. Cortina present in young specimens, soon disappearing. Context whitishinpileus, violaceous blue in stipe, especially in upper 3rd part. Smell spermatic. Taste not known.
Spores8.0—10.5(—11.0)x5.0-6.0pm, on average 8.6-9.7×5.1-5.6pm, Q= 1.6-2.0(-2.1), Q= 1.7-1.8, smooth, subamygdaliform, with (sub)conicalapex. Pleurocystidia(53—)55—74(—86) x14—20(—22)pm, slenderlyfusiform, slenderly utriform to sublageniform-cylindrical, thick-walled, with up to 2.0 pm thick, almost colourless to pale yellow wall, crystalliferous at apex, frequent. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, infrequent. Paracystidia pyriform toclavate, thin-walled,colourless, abundant. Basidia29-35×8-10pm,4-spored. Caulocystidia present in apical 1/6th part of stipe, but sometimes (almost) absent, similar to cheilocystidia orslightlyirregular, mixedwithscattered cauloparacystidia.
HABITAT& DISTRIBUTION. Under frondose trees on marshysoil. Associated with Betula, Alnus,, and Salix. So far known only from the type-locality in Germany. June-Aug.
Notes: The macroscopical description of this species has been copied from Stangl & Glowinski (in Karstenia 21: 27. 1981). Inocybe ionochlora Romagn.(seep.173) seems to come very close, butdiffers from I. hygrophana in being far less hygrophanousandinlamellae without violaceous tinges. For the time being both taxa are accepted as different but more material might well indicate that they merely are infraspecific taxa of one species.

Inocybe insignis A. H. Smith, Mycologia 33: 11. 1941.
Pileus 30–60 mm broad; conic to obtusely conic at first, becoming broadly conic to applanate, with a broad, low umbo; surface dry, radially appressed fibrillose, be- coming radially rimose, finely squamulose over the disc, dull brown to medium orangish brown, with a slightly darker center, bruising greenish blue, negative with the application of 15% KOH; context up to 7 mm thick on the disc, whitish, unchanging or slowly turning greenish blue on exposure; odor strongly sweet and fragrant, with a spermatic component; taste not assessed. Lamellae adnate to uncinate; close; with several tiers of lamellulae; at first buff, becoming dull cinnamon brown; occasionally staining greenish blue where bruised; edges concolorous, not conspicuously fimbriate. Stipe 50–70 × 3–4 mm; equal above a rimmed, bulbous base; surface dry, densely pruinose the entire length; cortina not observed and presumably absent; dull brown to pinkish brown, bruising greenish blue to blackish blue; basal bulb 6–8 mm broad, subglobose, rimmed, whitish; basal mycelium whitish; context dull cinnamon brown, unchanging or slowly turning greenish blue on exposure, becoming hollow.
Basidiospores 8–11 × 6–9 μm (including nodules); average Q = 1.23; subelliptic to subcruciate or irregular in outline; stellate or prominently nodulose, with 7–11 con- ic to subconic nodules visible; ochraceous to golden or brownish in KOH; orangish in Melzer’s reagent; not cyanophilic. Basidia 35–40 × 8–11 μm; clavate to subclavate; 4-sterigmate; hyaline in KOH; not reviving well after sporulation. Pleurocystidia 50–65 × 15–23 μm; widely lageniform or, less commonly, subcylindric, subutriform, or subglobose, with a short basal pedicel; thick-walled (walls 1–3 μm thick), hyaline in KOH; apices crystalliferous; frequent. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, fre- quent; paracystidia 20–30 × 5–8 μm, clavate to abruptly clavate, thin-walled, hyaline in KOH, basally clamped. Lamellar trama parallel, hyphae 4–15 μm wide, hyaline in KOH; elements of subhymenium narrow and cylindric, 1–2 μm wide. Caulocystidia 55–75 × 12–20 μm, similar to hymenial cystidia, in fascicles with paracystidia, frequent near stipe apex, less frequent near stipe base; elements of stipe trama parallel, 3–10 μm wide, smooth, hyaline in KOH. Pileipellis a radially oriented cutis; hyphae cylindric, 2–7 μm wide, walls smooth or finely encrusted, hyaline to brown in KOH, often clamped; cells of pileal trama 5–15 μm wide, cylindric to somewhat inflated, smooth, hyaline to brownish in KOH, septate, clamped, walls 0.5–1 μm thick. Clamp connections present.
Distribution. Eastern North America; central Illinois and east Tennessee.
Ecology. Growing scattered and gregariously on mossy soil under Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Acer saccharum Marsh., Quercus velutina Lam., Quercus imbricaria Michx., and Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. July. Fruiting in June (type recorded in August).

Inocybe ionochlora Romagn., Beih. Sydowia 8: 352 (1979)
Pileus 9-12 mm, plano-convex, with a low, broad, obtuse umbo, seemingly hygrophanous because of very thin context, when moist olivaceous red-brown around centre and olivaceous-ochraceous in outer part (resembling En/oloma pleopodium), somewhat pallescent on drying, almost smooth to sericeous-fibrillose, around disc minutely squamulose. Lamellae somewhat distant, rather narrowly adnate, pale buff, then brown, with concolorous edge. Stipe 12-30 × 1.5-2 mm, somewhat broadened towards base, solid, somewhat greyish violaceous at apex, elsewhere more reddish-brownish, only at apex pruinose, downwards indistinctly longitudinally fibrillose. Cortina not observed. Context somewhat violaceous in stipe apex, hygrophanous, pallescent to whitish on drying. Smell iodium-like.
Spores (8.5-)9.0-10.0(-11.0) x (4.5-)5.0-5.5(-6.0) ~m, on average 9.3 × 5.3 pm, Q = (1. 6-) 1.7- 1.9(-2.0), Q = 1.8, smooth, (sub)amygdali form, with conical apex. Pleurocystidia (58-)61-70(-74) x (12- ) 14-16(-17) J.l.m, slenderly fusiform to slenderly utriform, a few tending to sublageniform, thick-walled, with up to 2.5(-3.0) J.l.m thick, yellow wall, crystalliferous at apex, abundant. Cheilocystidia and paracystidia not studied. Basidia 25-32 × 8-10 pm, 4-spored. Stipe covering not studied.
HABITAT & DISTRIBUTION. – On marshy soil, associated with Corylus and Alnus. Known so far only from the type locality in France. Aug.

Continue To Part II:


Add Comment
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2019-04-28 04:37:56 CST (+0800)

Any edition would be helpful. The fourth and final edition would be best though.

Which edition?
By: Django Grootmyers (heelsplitter)
2019-04-28 03:00:04 CST (+0800)
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2019-04-27 16:01:15 CST (+0800)

At least a couple of them seem that way. We’ll have to wait and let things develop.

Hey, I have a question. Can you (or anyone out there) get a complete PDF of pages 1-981 of Agaricales In Modern Taxonomy? It’s needed badly.

By: Django Grootmyers (heelsplitter)
2019-02-16 05:22:44 CST (+0800)

The “bluing” in a decent percentage of these observations appears to be due to inaccurate color photos.