Species List: Gymnopilus Species Demonstrating Green To Blue Spectrum Hues – P1 of 2 – Recommended For Study - (1356)
When: 2019-01-05
Observations: 35


A present day, state-of-the-art test for the presence or absence of Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Baeocystin)※, Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and Aeruginascin – at a minimum – is needed. Undiscovered pre-cursors and post-cursors to Psilocybin should also be selected for testing, as well as an undiscovered MAOI (Mono-Amine Oxidase Inhibitor). It is recommended that testing be conducted, too, for Norpsilocin, 4-HO-TMT, Cordysinin C, Cordysinin D, Harmane, Harmol, Norharmane, and Perlolyrine.

The following Gymnopilus species may all generate Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Beaocystin), Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and other mind-altering chemicals. A new study is strongly recommended to chemically investigate these species using the very best methods and the most contemporary equipment possible. Additional testing for the following is also needed: Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocybin, Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocin, Tryptophan, Tryptamine, Seratonin, Gymnopilin, Gymnopilin K, Gymnoprenal, Hispidin (a pre-cursor to Luciferin), Oligoisoprenoids, and Bisnoryangonin. The species list provided below is an investigative list.

The Species

Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Gymnopilus armillatus Murrill, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 67: 280 (1940)
= Flammula armillata (Murrill) Murrill, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 67: 281 (1940)
Gymnopilus braendlei (Peck) Hesler, Mycol. Mem. 3: 75 (1969)
Gymnopilus caerulovirescens Z.S. Bi, Guihaia 11(2): 131 (1991)
Gymnopilus cyanopalmicola Guzm.-Dáv., International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (Redding) 8(3): 289 (2006)
Gymnopilus dilepis (Berk. & Broome) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Gymnopilus imperialis (Speg.) Singer, Lilloa 22: 561 (1951) 1949
= Basionym: Pholiota imperialis Speg. 1889
Gymnopilus intermedius (Singer) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P.D. Orton, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 43(2): 176 (1960)
Gymnopilus lateritius (Pat.) Murrill, Mycologia 5(1): 19 (1913)
Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Fr.) P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 32: 400 (1879)
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Gymnopilus luteoviridis Thiers, Mycologia 51(4): 533 (1959)
Gymnopilus luteus (Peck) Hesler, Mycol. Mem. 3: 26 (1969)
Gymnopilus olivaceobrunneus S.M. Kulk., Geobios, New Rep. 9(1): 16 (1990)
Gymnopilus olivaceus (Pat.) Murrill, Mycologia 5(1): 18 (1913)
Gymnopilus palmicola Murrill, Mycologia 5(1): 23 (1913)
Gymnopilus punctifolius (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 561 (1951) 1949
Gymnopilus purpuratus (Cooke & Massee) Singer, Sydowia 9(1-6): 411 (1955)
Gymnopilus purpureosquamulosus Høil., Mycotaxon 69: 82 (1998)
Gymnopilus sapineus (Fr.) Murrill, Mycologia 4 (5): 254 (1912)
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Singer, Nov. holland. pl. spec.: 471 (1951)
Gymnopilus subearlei R. Valenz., Guzmán & J. Castillo, Boln. Soc. mex. Micol. 15: 91 (1981)
Gymnopilus subflavidus Murrill, Mycologia 4(5): 252 (1912)
Gymnopilus subpurpuratus Guzm.-Dáv. & Guzmán, Mycotaxon 41(1): 50 (1991)
Gymnopilus thiersii M.T. Seidl, Mycotaxon 34 (1): 217 (1989)
Gymnopilus turficola M.M. Moser & H. Ladurner, in Moser, Ladurner, Peintner & Martin, Nordic Jl Bot. 21(3): 323 (2001)
Gymnopilus validipes (Peck) Hesler, Mycol. Mem. 3: 25 (1969)
Gymnopilus ventricosus (Earle) Hesler, Mycologia Memoirs 3: 20 (1969)
Gymnopilus viridans Murrill, Mycologia 4(5): 257 (1912)

Additional Recommendations:

🍄 Full genome DNA phylogeny is published. Sequences are uploaded to Genbank.
🍄 Atleast three (3) distinguishing features are provided to assist in future identification of each listed species. Emphasis is placed not upon microscopic characters, but on macroscopic characters – for in situ identifications. If necessary, additional taxonomic characters may be expandable (s.l.) by including observations made using a hand lens or loupe (10x, 20x). This can also be achieved and reproduced photographically. See collections with squamulose pilei demonstrating cyan to black scales.
🍄 Synonyms are determined and genus sections are updated.
🍄 Complete, improved taxonomic descriptions are published using all names listed above.
🍄 Paper is provided in 5-7 languages (English, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian).
🍄 All chemicals analyzed to determine chirality using Atomic Force Microscopy.
🍄 Paper is provided as a courtesy to the public.
🍄 Gymnopilus is carefully compared to – and distinguished from – the genus Galerina to prevent accidental poisoning.
🍄 Chemical transcience and lifespan are discussed and observed in lab myceliums, freshly harvested wild collections, and in herbarium collections.
🍄 A worldwide themed distribution map is shown (and intregated into) a month-to-month cycle showing the electromagnetic light spectrum changing throughout the year. This is important.
🍄 Taxonomically useful color photos are aesthetically published for each species.
🍄 Mating studies are performed. Compatability or non-comptability is determined when synonyms require additional evidence. In addition, Pholiota myceliums are selected for mating studies with Gymnopilus species to observe the possibility for cryptic cross breeds. Proof to conclude sympatric speciation or a lack of sympatric speciation is provided.
🍄 A careful comparison is made showing similarities and differences in symptoms after consuming Psilocybin solely, Alpha-Amanitin solely, and Grayanotoxin I solely. Antidotes to conclude the effects of each chemical should be published. A careful analysis of the effects from Amatoxins occurring in the look-alike genus Galerina is included.
🍄 Myceliums are observed in an experiment in which electromagnetic light (320-400 nanometers) is aimed using slightly nuanced distances and time durations. In contrast, (blue light 440 – 490 nm) and green light (490 – 570 nm) (see nanometer graph elsewhere) tests should be conducted with great patience in separate groups. Dextrose is added to antibiotic agar petri dishes in a separate test group (Test Group 4) in which the myceliums fully colonize, followed by repetitive exposures to light in the 320-400 nm wavelength in Test Group 1, blue light in Test Group 2, then green light in Test Group 3. Additionally, some colonized dishes are selected for cold-shocking to assist in primordia formation (Test Group 5). See the following speech and fast forward to 7 minutes in: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M9joL8spvS8#fauxfullscreen
🍄 Techniques of growing Gymnopilus species in mycelial culture and methods for fruitbody production are published, including growth parameters. A present-day, economic-scientific terrarium design is included to further increase the number of genera that can be studied outside their wild type habitats.
🍄 Quantification of blue-to-green collections are made, with emphasis on where (on the basidiocarps) this color spectrum most frequently occurs and why.
🍄 Every mycelium achieving luxuriant mycelium status is cloned and placed into standard, sterilized malt agar ALONG WITH several common bacteria species (individually) that negatively impact humans via gastronomy-related conditions. These myceliums will be tested as winning adveraries with anti-bacterial properties just as Alexander Fleming performed with a Penicillium species. Fleming was able to defeat a Staphylococcus species. Additionally, see the following test: https://www.researchgate.net/...
🍄 Detection of light-emitting or light-reactive bacteria on the stipitipellis, hymenium, and pileipellis is performed using a system like: https://www.hygiena.com/...
🍄 A contemporary world-wide monograph for the genus Gymnopilus should now be considered for publication with emphasis on how to discern between species using macroscopic features – whenever possible. When providing at least three (3) macroscopic differences, it is recommended that they be listed strategically as follows: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary.
🍄 Formally try to define words associated with olive color(s) as defined by mycologists over history. (e.g. Olivaceous, Olive-Gray, Green Olive, Black Olive, Etc.).
🍄 Names are updated on Mycobank, Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum, and Mushroom Observer.
🍄 Species names are proposed for all unidentified observations in this genus on www.mushroomobserver.org
🍄 Organize some photography sessions of species into gif files and add them to the digital publication(s).
🍄 Discuss the type species of the genus, Gymnopilus liquiritae (Pers.) P. Karst. 1879, versus the newly proposed type species by Gymnopilus picreus (Pers.) P. Karst. (1879). See https://www.researchgate.net/...
🍄 A detailed glossary with definitions and images is included.

Preface: The traditional bluing seen in species in the genus Psilocybe is not paralleled in the genus Gymnopilus. Instead a nuanced color spectrum is exhibited ranging from bluish gray-green, aeruginous, variegated green and yellow, tinged greenish, dull bluish green, green or green-spotted, olivaceous (“darkolive”), greenish, very slightly bluish, and greenish-yellow.
An intuitive chemical investigation is now needed in order to better describe the related colors observed in this genus and their preceding, corresponding chemical reactions. Note that not all individual specimens in a Psilocybin-positive collection will exhibit these colors, and yet those same specimens can test positive for Psilocybin. Not all Psilocybin-positive collections will display these colors either. The “blue bruising” reaction which occurs quite often when handling species in the genus Psilocybe does not commonly occur in the vast majority (=nearly all) of Gymnopilus species. Important, too, is the chemical investigation of any toxins capable of harming humans or which interact with Psilocybin in any manner.

Descriptions Of The Species

Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Pileus cespitose, 2-5 (more rarely 6-23) cm broad, convex, dry, at first dull bluish gray-green, or aeruginous to variegated green and yellow, at times with patches of salmon or livid red, becoming “warm buff” to “pinkish buff,” or at times brown or drab, especially when dried, fibrillose-scaly, becoming rimose-areolate, each areola with 2-8 cushion-like to fibrillose scales, or sometimes squamulose without areolae, the scales tawny or blackish, margin even. Context pallid or whitish, tinged greenish, or dull bluish green, when dry becoming yellowish to vinaceous. Odor mild. Taste bitter.
Lamellae adnexed to adnate, often at first decurrent by a line, frequently seceding, “cream-buff” to “pale ochraceous orange,” broad to medium broad, crowded or close, lamellulae numerous, edges even to slightly rough.
Stipe (3-)5-12 cm long, (4-)10-15(-40) mm thick, concolorous, appressed-fibrillose or glabrous, dry, sometimes striate, solid, becoming more or less hollow, at times 3-8 connate at base, equal. Veil arachnoid, yellowish, slight, fugacious, leaving an apical evanescent zone.
Spores in deposit “orange-rufous,” “ferruginous,” “xanthine orange,” or “cinnamon rufous;” spores 6-8.5(-9) x (3.5-)4-4.5 um, ellipsoid in face view, inequilateral in profile, verruculose, no germ pore, ferruginous in KOH, dextrinoid. Basidia 24-29 × 5-7 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 23-35 × 5-7 um, ventricose, rare. Basidioles sometimes present, 22-27 × 5-6 um, clavate, brown. Cheilocystidia 20-38 x (3-)5-7(-9) um, flask-shaped to ventricose, capitate, subcapitate, more rarely non-capitate, sometimes extending up the sides to a short distant. Gill trama of subparallel hyphae, 5-12(-25) um broad; subhymenium not distinctive. Pileus trama interwoven. Cuticle of repent hyphae, bearing tufts of brown, sometimes incrusted hyphae (the scales); pileocystidia none. Caulocystidia 34-60 × 3-7 um, cylindric-clavate, scattered, or more rarely in tufts. Clamp connections present. Yellow pigment, soluble in KOH, present in the gill trama.
Habit, Habitat And Distribution: On hardwood and conifer wood (sawdust, timber, longs, stumps), of wide occurrence across the United States. May-November.
OBSERVATIONS: See Hesler’s notes in North American Species Of Gymnopilus.

Gymnopilus armillatus Murrill, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 67: 280 (1940)
= Flammula armillata (Murrill) Murrill, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 67: 281 (1940)
(To Be Developed)

Gymnopilus braendlei (Peck) Hesler, Mycol. Mem. 3: 75 (1969)
Pileus singly or cespitose, 2.5-5 cm broad, hemispheric becoming convex, sometimes slightly umbilicate, hygrophanous, purplish when young, then pink the center and pale pink or pallid on the margin, finally yellowish, sometimes with green stains, fibrillose, or, in large specimens, squamulose in the center and fibrillose on the margin. Context whitish, thin. Taste bitter and unpleasant.
Lamellae adnate, sometimes slightly sinuate, whitish, soon bright tawny or Indian yellow (“mustard yellow” to almost “cadmium yellow”), becoming bright tawny ochraceous with age, broad, close.
Stipe 2.5-4 cm long, 3-4 mm thick, pallid, sometimes yellowish at the base, fibrillose at the top from the veil remains, stuffed or hollow, equal or nearly so. Veil fibrillose, at times leaving a silky zone on stipe, but not forming an annulus.
Spores bright tawny ochraceous in a thick deposit, ochraceous buff in a thin one (Peck), 6-8 x (4-)4.5-5 um, ellipsoid to ovoid in face view, inequilateral in profile, ferruginous in KOH, dextrinoid, verruculose, no germ pore. Basidia 25-36 × 5-6 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 22-33 × 6-7 um, clavate-ventricose; cheilocystidia 20-34 × 3-7 um, ventricose or flask-shaped, subcapitate or capitate. Gill trama of subparallel or slightly interwoven hyphae 7-22 um broad; sub-hymenium not distinctive. Pileus trama loosely interwoven. Cuticle of repent hyphae, bearing scattered mounds of brown hyphae, the terminal elements of which are pileocystidia, 40-62 × 7-16 um. Clamp connections present. Caulocystidia none. Pileus and gill trama colorless in KOH; yellowish brown in Melzer’s reagent.
Habit, Habitat, And Distribution: On decaying trunks, District of Columbia, November, also Missouri.
OBSERVATIONS: This species is recognized by its pileus colors (purplish then pink, finally yellowish), bitter taste, white flesh, white young gills, loosely interwoven pileus trama, and the absence of caulocystidia. Its relationship to closely allied species is discussed under G. aeruginosus, page 70.

Gymnopilus cyanopalmicola Guzm.-Dáv., International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (Redding) 8(3): 289 (2006)
(Complete English Description Needed)

Gymnopilus dilepis (Berk. & Broome) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
(Description From Gymnopilus dilepis, A New Record In Thailand): Pileus 20-50 mm in diameter, convex to plano-convex, surface light orange (6A5) towards the center, pale orange (5A3) to light orange (5A4) towards the margin, squamulose; squamules ruby (12D8) to violet brown (10F8), erect and comparatively denser at the center, sparse and appressed in the middle, sparse or almost absent towards the margin; margin decurved to plane. Context concolorous with the pileus surface. Lamellae adnate to subdecurrent, light orange (5A5) to orange (5A6). Stipe 25-60 × 3-9 mm, central, almost equal or slightly tapering basally, surface pale orange (5A3), becoming dark brown towards base. Veil present. Odor slight. Pileus and stipe surface darkened to brownish orange (6C8) with aqueous KOH. Spore print light brown (6D8).
Basidiospores 6-7.5 × 4.8-6 μm, Q = 1.23-1.5, broadly elliptical to ellipsoid, with obtuse apex, slightly thickened walls, verrucose, warts medium to large, dextrinoid, orange-brown in KOH. Basidia 20-27.5 × 5-8.5 μm, clavate to cylindric-clavate, hyaline, 4-spored, with basal clamp connection, sterigmata ≤5.5 μm long. Pleurocystidia absent. Pseudocystidia 20-27 × 7-8.5 μm, clavate- rostrate or subfusiform, thin-walled, with granulose to homogeneous orange- brown contents. Cheilocystidia 20-30.2 × 8-12 μm, apex 2.2-4.5 μm diam., utriform, ranging from clavate with a wide rostrum to lageniform with a short neck and a non-capitate or subcapitate apex, thin-walled, with basal clamp connection, hyaline to pale yellow. Hymenophoral trama subregular, hyphae 2-20 μm diam., thin-walled, hyaline to pale yellow. Subhymenium inflated- ramose. Pileal trama radial, hyphae 2-20.5 μm diam., thin-walled, hyaline to pale yellow. Pileipellis a cutis, hyphae 3-15 μm diam., thin-walled, coarsely encrusted with brown pigment. Stipe trama composed of hyphae 2-25 μm diam., parallel, thin-walled, pale yellow. Stipitipellis a cutis, hyphae 2-12 μm diam., thin-walled with pale yellow to brown wall pigment. Caulocystidia 18.2-65 × 5.5-14.5 μm, cylindrical, clavate, narrowly utriform, with obtuse or subcapitate apex, hyaline, some with granulose, pale yellow or orange-brown content, thin-walled, in tufts at the stipe apex. Clamp connections present on all hyphae.
Both specimens collected in northern Thailand were initially identified as G. dilepis based on descriptions by Guzmán-Dávalos (2003) and Thomas et al. (2003). This species is easily distinguished from G. penetrans, which produces a gray-brown to dark brown pileus with a white to grayish-white tomentose-arachnoid velum covering the whole surface (Holec 2005). The smaller basidiospores (4.0-6.0 × 3.5-5.0 μm) of G. punctifolius and the longer basidiospores (8.0-10.5 × 5.5-7.2 μm) of G. junonius clearly distinguish these two species from G. dilepis (Singer 1951; Holec 2005).
Gymnopilus dilepis is closely related to G. purpuratus (Cooke & Massee) Singer and G. norfolkensis B.J. Rees & Lepp, from which it is distinguished by differences in spore size: basidiospores of G. purpuratus differs are longer (7.5-8.7 × 4.8-5.7 μm; Rees et al. 2004) while those of G. norfolkensis are narrower (6.4-7.2 × 4.0-5.2 μm; Rees and Lepp 2000). Gymnopilus dilepis also resembles G. lepidotus Hesler, but the two species differ in the form of the cheilocystidia; additionally G. lepidotus is known only from Mexico and the United States (Hesler 1969, Guzmán-Dávalos 2003, Guzmán-Dávalos et al. 2003).
Our molecular analysis also confirmed the two Thai specimens as representing G. dilepis. The combination of morphological and molecular characters confirms G. dilepis as a new record for Thailand.

Gymnopilus imperialis (Speg.) Singer, Lilloa 22: 561 (1951) 1949
= Basionym: Pholiota imperialis Speg. 1889
(New Description Needed)

Gymnopilus intermedius (Singer) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
(Complete English Description Needed)

Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P.D. Orton, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 43(2): 176 (1960)
(Description From The genus Gymnopilus in Norway): Cap 4-15 cm broad, convex, fibrillose to somewhat scaly with appressed squamules, bright orange yellow to orange. Gills adnexed to adnate, first orange yellow then red brown. Stie sturdy, tapering towards the base and usually rooted, fibrillose, orange to yellow brown, with an ample, firm ring. Flesh yellow to pale orange; with an intensely bitter taste.
Spores (7)-8.82±0.54-(11) x (4.5)-5.34±0.30-(6.5) um, ellipsoid to amygdaloid, coarsely verrucose to punctate, usually yellow brown, seldom red brown. Basidia 29-32 × 5.5-7 um, sterigmata ≤ 4 um. Cystidia 22-30 × 5-7 (broadest part) 2-3.5 (narrowestpart) um, ventricose-rostrate with a clavate, rounded or globose apex. Hyphae of epicutis ≤ 10 um. (Basidia, cystidia, and hyphae measuredin G004).
Ecology and Distribution: Of 24 Norwegian collections examined, all were found on dead or dying deciduous wood. Four collections wre made on Betula, 2 on Fagus, 2 on Quercus, and 1 on Tilia. The hosts for the remaining material could not be determined. The species grows solitary or gregariously, either directly on trunks of living, weakened trees or on dead stumps or logs. Sometimes it is found on buried wood or timber used in constructions as, e.g., railway tracks. It prefers old trees or coarse wood in or near man made habitats as parks, gardens, or countryside forests. Due to increasing cutting of old, weakened trees and removal of old, dead wood from the cultural landscape, the species is probably declining. Its main season is in September, but relatively many finds are from August and October. Gymnopilus junonius has a lowland coastal distribution from Bergen in Hordaland to Ostfold, and north to Oslo. The species is previously recorded from Norway by Blytt (1905), Lund (1957), and eckblad (1975).

Gymnopilus lateritius (Pat.) Murrill, Mycologia 5(1): 19 (1913)
(Complete English Description Needed)
Basionym: Flammula lateritia Pat. 1900 [https://archive.org/details/mycologia5191newy/page/n37]

Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Fr.) P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 32: 400 (1879)
Pileus 2540 mm broad, convex to plane, with a slight central depression, margin exuemely uplifted with age, dry, glabrous, orange yellow to golden orange. Lamellae adnexed to sinuate, close, ventricose, wavy, mustard yellow with orange shades, margin granulate yelk>wish. Stipe 3()..4() x 3-9 mm, equal to narrowed below, sometimes subbulbous at the base, fibrillose, whitish yellow at the base, yellowish brown toward lhe apex, solid, with white rhizomorphs, veil none. Context whitish tO yellowish, odor fungic agreeable, slightly to rubber, taste bitter.
Spores (6.8-)7.6-9.6 (-10.4) x 4.4-5.6).1m, ellipsoid, verrucuiosc, without germ pore, yellowish golden brown, dextrinoid. Basidia 24-32 × 6-7.2 ). lm, tetraspored, some bi- or trisporic, clavate, some with central constrit tion, hyaline to grayish yellow, sterigmata 2.4-4.8 um long. Pleurocystidia 17.6-25.6x 5.2-7.2 um, apex 3.6-5.2 ~min diam., ventricose, subcylindric or flask-shaped, subcapitate, grayish yellow, scauered and inconspicuous. Cheilocystida 20-32 × 4.8-8.8 um. apex 4-6.4 um in diam., Oask-shaped, capitate or subcapitate, some with a long neck, some ventricose-clavate with subcapitate apex, hyaline, some with yellowish or yellowish brown oontcnt, scaucrcd. Gill trama interwoven to subparallel. Pileus trama with interwoven hyphae, except at the junction between the lamellae and pileus where they are radially arranged. Cuticle with hyphae 4-15.2 um broad, postrate, yellowish to yellowish brown, more o less incrusted. Pileocystidia absent. Caulocystidia 16.8-51.2 × 2-7.2 um apex 3.6-6 um broad, cylindric-ventricose, not capitate, subcapitate found only at the stipe apex, occurring in tufts, hyaline to yellowish brown. Clamp oonnections present.
Habitat: Cespitose on a dead Pinus trunk in Pinus with some Qrurcus
MATERIAL STUDIED. MEXICO: STATE OF JALISCO, Municipalily or Mazamilla, Monteverde, Guzman-Davalos 4132 (IBUG, XAL, ENCB, MICH). U.S.A: Nuevo Mexico, Santa Fe Co., around Santa Fe, Barrows 618 (MICH).
OBSERVATIONS. This species is recognized by the color or the basidiocarp, glabrous pileus and tufled caulocystidia. According to Hesler (1969) and Moser (1983), this species has a yellow or light orange context, however in the Mexican specimens the context was whitish to yellowish. Furthermore, Hesler mentioned that this species has pileocystidia, however they were not observed in the material from Jalisco and, likewise, were not found in the material from U.S.A that was determined by Hesler. Horak (1968) also described Ibis species as lacking pileocystidia. G. liquiritiae has been cited from U.S.A, Europe and Japan by !mal (1938), Kuhner and Romagnesi (1953), Hesler (1969), imazeki and Hongo (1969), Moser (1983) and Smith-Weber and Smith (1985). This is the first record of its presence in Mexico.

Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 560 (1951) 1949
Pileus 2-6(-8) cm broad, cespitose to subcespitose, convex, obtuse, young basidiocarps dark-red to reddish-brown from dense fasciculate scales, then fading to pinkish red or yellowish red, finally yellowish, margin fibrillose or appressed-scaly, dry, margin even. Context at first reddish, light purplish vinaceous, or lavendar, fading to yellowish. Odor mild to pungent (subalcaline). Taste bitter.
Lamellae adnate or uncinate to emarginate, at first yellow (“antimony yellow” to “honey yellow”), then bright ferruginous, close or subdistant, broad or medium broad, edges serrate.
Stipe 3-9 cm long, 3-10 mm thick, concolorous, fibrillose, equal or enlarged downward, solid. Veil arachnoid to submembranous, yellowish, forming a fugacious annulus.
Spores bright ferruginous, (5.5-)6-8.5 x (3.5-)4-4.5 um, ellipsoid to subovoid in face view, slightly inequilateral in profile, verruculose, ferruginous in KOH, dextrinoid, no germ pore. Basidia 24-28 × 6-7 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 30-38 × 5-10 um, colorless, fusoid to subventricose. Basidioles brown, 21-30 × 5-8 um, clavate, or more frequently ventricose and the apices acute, buried. Cheilocystidia 23-28 × 4-7 um, ventricose to flask-shaped, capitate to non-capitate. Gill trama more or less parallel, hyphae 5-12(-18) um broad, rather frequently septate. Pileus trama interwoven. Cuticle not sharply differentiated, the surface bearing tuftsof brown, incrusted hyphae (scales). Pileocystidia 44-53(-100) x 5-14(-17) um, as clavate to cylindrical or ventricose terminal elements on tufts of hyphae forming the scales, rarely in mounds. Clamp connections present. Caulocystidia 20-63 × 3-10(-15) um, clavate, ventricose, or flask-shaped, forming a turf. Pileus and gill trama pale yellowish brown in KOH; reddish brown in Melzer’s reagent. In KOH, a yellowish pigment is dissolved from the gill trama.
Habit, Habitat, And Distribution: On wood (sawdust, logs, stumps of conifers, more rarely on oak and cottonwood), widely scattered over the United States from June-November.
OBSERVATIONS: The chief distinctive characters of this species are its dark-red to reddish brown young pilei with the colors fading to pinkish red or yellowish red then yellow, the reddish or vinaceous pileus-context which fades to yellowish, the dextrinoid spores, and the caulocystidia. Its relationship to other closely allied species is discussed under G. aeruginosus, page 70.

Gymnopilus luteoviridis Thiers, Mycologia 51(4): 533 (1959)
Pileus 2.5-4 cm broad, convex to subconic when young becoming plane to plano-convex, margin incurved when young, remaining decurved with age, entire to occasionally appendiculate when young, becoming eroded withage, more or less evenly colored dull yellow (“straw yellow” to “mustard yellow”) to occassionally yellow (“primuline yellow”), entire carpophore staining green and drying with greenish tints, dry, conspicuously fibrillose, forming small recurved scales when older, scales pale fulvous (“ochraceous tawny”) along the margin, changing to olivaceous (“darkolive”) near the disc. Context moderately thick (4-5 mm), concolorous with the surface, odor not distinctive, taste bitter.
Lamellae adnate to adnexed with a short decurrent tooth, close to subdistant, thin, 1-4 mm broad, buff to dark yellow (“cream buff” to “chamois”) when young becoming tawny (“ochraceous tawny” to “buckthorn brown”) with age, edges entire, concolorous with the gill faces, lamellulae of 1-2 lengths.
Stipe 4-6 cm long, 3-5 mm broad at the apex, tapering slightly toward the apex, stuffed to hollow; surface dry, glabrous, longitudinally striate, yellowish (“light buff” to “warm buff”) during all stages of development, frequently staining greenish when old; annulus represented by a fibrillose zone near the apex.
Spores 5.5-7 × 4-5(-5.5) um, ellipsoid in face view, obscurely inequilateral in profile, wrinkled-rough, ornamentation 0.04-0.06 um high, wall blackish in Melzer’S reagent and cotton blue, cyanophilus, ferruginous in KOH, non-dextrinoid, no germ pore. Basidia 16-26 × 6-7 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 22-32 × 5-7 um, ventricose, with or without a neck, non-capitate, apex at times conical. Basidioles 22-30 × 6-10 um, flask-shaped or ventricose, with brown contents. Cheilocystidia 20-24 × 4-6 um, flask-shaped or ventricose. Gill trama of subparallel hyphae, 5-9 um broad, subhymenium not distinctive. Pileus trama radial. Cuticle of repent hyphae, bearing scattered, erect clusters of brown hyphae (scales). Pileocystidia and caulocystidia none. Clamp connections present.
Habit, Habitat And Distribution: Gregarious to cespitose on oak stumps in dense hardwoods. Texas. May.
Observations: The green discolorations suggest a close relationship with Gymnopilus aeruginosus but the yellow pileus and the presence of pleurocystidia distinguish it.

Gymnopilus luteus (Peck) Hesler, Mycol. Mem. 3: 26 (1969)
Pileus 5-10 cm broad, convex, buff-yellow, from “warm buff” to “antimony yellow,” often little darker at the center, appressed floccose-fibrillose or silky, sometimes minutely floccose-squamulose toward the center, dry, margin incurved and slightly surpassing the lamellae. Context fleshy, firm, pale yellow. Odor pleasant. Taste bitter.
Lamellae adnexed, rounded behind, pale yellow, becoming dark ferruginous with age, thin, close, moderately narrow.
Stipe 4-7.5 cm long, 6-16 mm thick, concolorous with the pileus, becoming ferruginous yellowish on handling, fibrillose, solid, firm, thickened above or below. Veil forming a fibrillose to submembraneous annulus.
Spores 6-9 × 4-5(-5.5) um, ellipsoid, slightly inequilateral, verrruculose, no germ pore, ferruginous in KOH, dextrinoid. Basidia 22-25 × 5-6 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 26-31 × 4-7 um, ventricose, scattered, inconspicuous. Cheilocystidia 24-32 × 4-6 um, ventricose to flask-shaped, capitate or subcapitate. Gill trama of subparallel hyphae, 3-5 um broad;subhymenium not distinctive. Pileus trama of radial hyphae. Cuticle a zone of dark brown, repent hyphae, with some mounds of brown, narrow (3-5 um), hyphae on the disc (the scales). Caulocystidia none. Clamp connections present. A yellowish brown to amber pigment, soluble in KOH, present in the gill trama.
Habit, Habit, And Distribution: On decaying wood, logs, and trunks of trees, New York and Tennessee, August – September.
Observations: This species has been thought to be related to, or even the same as, G. spectabilis, G. armillatus, G. magnus, and G. ventricosus. But, all these entities can be distinguished (see key to species). In G. spectabilis the pileus trama is interwoven, and caulocystidia are present in tufts or palisades (see also comments on page 23). In G. armillatus the spores are non-dextrinoid. In G. magnus the veil is fugacious and the pileus trama is interwoven. In G. ventricosus the lamellae are pale-brown becoming dark-cinnamon, the stipe is pale-brown, and the pileus trama interwoven.

Gymnopilus olivaceobrunneus S.M. Kulk., Geobios, New Rep. 9(1): 16 (1990)
Nomenclatural comment: Nom. inval., Art. 40.1, see Art. 8.1 (Melbourne)
Typification Details: AMH 7390 and AMH 7398
Host-Substratum/Locality: On rotten branches: Karnataka

Gymnopilus olivaceus (Pat.) Murrill, Mycologia 5(1): 18 (1913)
Basionym: Flammula olivacea Pat., in Duss 1903
Non-English Description: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/...

Gymnopilus purpuratus (Cooke & Massee) Singer, Sydowia 9(1-6): 411 (1955)
Nomenclatural comment: Nom. inval., Art. 41.5 (Melbourne)
Basionym: Agaricus purpuratus Cooke & Massee, in Cooke 1890.
Obligate or homotypic synonyms:
1. Agaricus purpuratus Cooke & Massee, Grevillea 18 (88): 73 (1890) [MB#457315]
2. Flammula purpurata (Cooke & Massee) Sacc., Sylloge Fungorum 9: 107 (1891) [MB#154130]
Remarks: Compare to Lilloa 22: 561 (A. purpuratus sensu Cleland)
See also:
Gymnopilus purpuratus var. croceescens
Gymnopilus purpuratus var. purpuratus
(Description From Type studies on Basidiomycetes VIII): Spores 8—9 x 4.8—5.5 um, with a rather conspicuous warty exosporial ornamentation, without plage, well pigmented; basidia 21.3 × 7.3 um, 4-spored; cheilocystidia ventricose below, with a cylindrical neck and capitate apex, 20—25 x 3.8—6.5 um, neck 1—2.8 um, in diameter, capitulum 4.5—5.8 um in diameter; hyphae with clamp connections.
The type, on fern stems in England (Kevv), as preserved at K, is a naucorioid species of Gymnopilus, with characteristic macro- scopial characters, bitter taste, and should be known as Gymnopilus purpuratus (Cooke & Mass.) Sing. It is close to but different from Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Sing. (cf. Revue de Myc. 18: 19. 1953).
(Description From PMOTW): Cap: 1-5 cm broad. Cap convex at first with an incurved margin, expanding with age to broadly convex to plane. Reddish purplish brown to purplish red with tinges of yellow and green. Surface covered with scattered fibrillose/floccose patches. Gills: Attachment sinuate, waxy yellow, becoming a brownish cinnamon yellow with spore maturity. Stem: 20-40 mm long by 2-4 mm thick, stout, narrowing upwards, with fine parallel striations and covered with fine, fragile fibrils. Yellowish brown overall, with greenish and yellowish overtones.
Microscopic Features: Spores bright rusty orange in deposit, 6.5-8.5 by 4.5-5.2 um, ellipsoid, lacks cystidia.
Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Grows on rotting wood. In Europe, reported from pig dung mixed with wood chips. ALso sighted in south Australia in May.
Comments: Weakly to moderately active. Gartz (1993) reported that dried, cultivated specimens yielded .23% psilocybin, .21% psilocin, and .05% baeocystin. Later, Gartz (1994) found roughly similar amounts – .25 % psilocybin, .33% psilocin, and .03% baeocystin – also from cultivated specimens. This distinctive mushroom can be cultivated on wood chips or logs using techniques outlined by Gartz (1992). The full range of this Gymnopilus purpuratus is not well documented. I would expect it to become more common throughout temperate regions of the world as strains acclimate. Cultivators play a key role in its expansion. Gymnopilus sapineus, a closely related species, my also be active but has not yet been analyzed.

Gymnopilus purpureosquamulosus Høil., Mycotaxon 69: 82 (1998)
Pileus (10±) 23±95 mm, obconic-campanulate to convex when young, expanding to broadly convex, plano-convex to plane, non-umbonate, slightly depressed at centre when older, surface dry to moist, raspberry-pink or raspberry-fulvous when young, then lilac-fuchsia, finally lemon-yellow, or dull yellow or golden-ochre overall at all stages, covered by dense, sharp and erect tiny fibrillose squa- mules, mainly present at disc, sometimes extending to 2/3 of the radius, squamules lilac-pink, red-fuchsia, reddish, rusty-red or pale brown when rain-soaked, purple when dry, in older basidiomata becoming appressed towards the margin and erect towards the disc; margin straight to revolute, wavy, translucent-striate up to 10 mm (most obvious in mature pilei), sometimes appendiculate with buff- yellow partial veil remnants. ± L a m e l l a e crowded to close, 4±8 mm wide, adnate, uncinate-adnate or shortly decurrent, ventricose, pale yellow when young, soon yellowish-orange, yellow-saffron, reddish- brown, finally dull ochre-orange or ferruginous then rusty when dry, not discolouring, edge entire, concolorous; lamellulae numerous. ± Stipe 27±8062±15 mm, central to eccentric, + cylindrical to sub- clavate, flexuose, glabrous or fibrillose-striate, pruinose at the upper part, silky, faint traces of velar fibrils seen on some young basidiomata, light yellow to vinaceous-pink, not discolouring or rusty- brown when handled, occasionally turning very slightly bluish at the base, basal mycelium white; in young stages the hymenophore is covered by a yellow, membranous, partial veil; in mature basidio-mata this veil forms a fugacious annulus, and apparently the stem is devoid of veil remnants. ± Context of the pileus 2±4 mm thick, white to raspberry-fuchsia then pale sulphur-yellow or yellow in old pileus; context of the stipe solid, sulphur-yellow in the upper and lower part of stipe, light rusty-brown in the middle, often entirely yellow or light yellow, unchanging. ± Odour and taste fungoid, sometimes with farinaceous odour. ± Spore print rusty-brown. ± KOH brown in fresh pileus and stipe in Panamanian specimen; KOH light green on fresh pileus, dark red on dry pileus and brownish on fresh stipe in Italian specimens.
Basidiospores (6.4) 7.2±9.6 (10.4)6(4) 4.7±6 (6.4)mm, Q = 1.33±1.8 (1.9) [N = 11, n = 30], ellipsoid to oblong, amygdaliform, with obtuse to subacute apex, few with a truncate apex, wall thick- ish, verrucose, warts medium to large [0.3±1 (1.5) mm], anastomosing, without germ pore and plage, some with faint plage, without or with a slight suprahilar depression, yellowish-brown or orange-brown in KOH, dextrinoid, not metachromatic, ornamentation cyanophilic. ± B a s i d i a (20) 24.8±35 (39) 6 6.4±8.8 (10) mm, clavate, with or without central constriction, tetraspored, with basal clamp connection, hya- line or with yellowish content, sterigmata 0.8±6.4mm long. ± Pleurocystidia not seen or extremely scarce. ± Cheilocystidia 16±29 (40)63.2±8 (10)mm, lageniform, narrowly lageniform, utri- form, widely utriform, cylindrical, fusiform, with a capitate or sub- capitate apex (2.4±6.8mm wide), with basal clamp connection, hya- line, yellowish, or with granulose yellow-brown content. ± Hyme- nophoral trama subparallel. ± Subhymenium cellular with some elongate elements, or, in some cases, ramose with some inflated or cellular elements. ± Pileus trama radial, but with interwoven zones towards the pileipellis, hyphae 3.2±17.6 mm wide, with thin to thickish wall, hyaline or yellowish, occasionally with yellowish- brown content. ± P i l e i p e l l i s a cutis of prostrate hyphae, yellowish or brown, with encrusted yellowish-brown pigment in bands; squa- mules formed by a trichoderm of (2.4) 3.2±13.6 (28) mm wide hyphae, elongate-fusiform, septate, with clamp connections, yellowish, with encrusted yellowish-brown pigment in bands, sometimes with pileo- cystidia-like terminal elements: 26.4±79 (92) 6 5±11.2 mm, cylindrical or claviform, with acute, subcapitate, mucronate or obtuse apex, with clamp connections, yellowish or brown, sometimes with encrusted yellowish-brown pigment in bands. ± Caulocystidia 22.4±73 (88) 6 3.2±17 mm, apex 3.2±11.2 (16) mm wide, clavate, cylindrical, few utriform or lageniform, apex obtuse, subcapitate or capitate, with thin wall, with basal clamp connection, hyaline or yellowish, with or without granulose, hyaline or yellowish-brown content, in tufts at the stipe apex. ± Tromboplerous hyphae with yellow content common in some basidiomata, absent in others. ± Clamp-connections present.
Habitat. ± Isolated, scattered, gregarious or caespitose, on decaying hard-wood in mixed riparian forest, on living trunks of Phoenix canariensis near the sea, on a log in tropical forest, or on a wooden wall next to a palm.
Distribution. ± Previously known only from Zimbabwe; now recorded from Italy (Sardinia), Nigeria, Panama and Switzerland.

Gymnopilus sapineus (Fr.) Murrill, Mycologia 4 (5): 254 (1912)
(Description From Hesler): Pileus (1-)3-5(-9) cm broad,subcespitose or gregarious to scattered, hemispheric then plano-convex, golden yellow to tawny, paler on the margin, minutely floccose-squamulose, at length fading and rimose. Context thick on disc, soft, yellow; odor strong taste often bitter.
Lamellae adnate, chrome-yellow, then fulvous-cinnamon or rusty-yellow, broad, close, edges minutely fimbriate.
Stipe 3-7 cm long, 4-7(-12) mm thick, yellowish, brownish below when handled, innately fibrillose, solid or stuffed then hollow, equal or sub-attenuated downward. Veil yellowish, scanty, sometimes present on the pileus margin, fugacious.
Spores in deposit: “Hazel” or “amber brown,” 7-9(-10) x 4-5.5 um, ellipsoid in face view, inequilateral in profile, verruculose, no germ pore, ferruginous in KOH, dextrinoid. Basidia 24-28 × 5-7 um, 4-spored. Pleurocystidia 23-32 × 5-7 um, inconspicuous, scattered, ventricose. Cheilocystidia 22-40 × 5-7 um, ventricose, capitate to subcapitate, more rarely non-capitate. Gill trama sub-parallel, hyphae 4-10 um broad. Subhymenium not distinctive. Pileus trama radial. Cuticle a zone of repent, brown, often incrusted hyphae, bearing fibrils which may be in fascicles (scales), and with scattered mounds of brown, ventricose to clavate pileocystidia, 24-30 × 5-8 um. Caulocystidia 37-57 × 3-7 um, with a slender neck, capitate, often in rosettes. Yellow pigment, soluble in KOH, present in gill trama.
Habit, Habitat, And Distribution: On wood of conifers and hardwood, and on sawdust, scattered over the United States, and Europose, throughout most of the year.
OBSERVATIONS: The distinctive characteristics of this species include its yellow to tawny, floccose-squamulose pileus, which fades and becomes rimose; the color change of the stip from yellow to brown where handled; the yellow veil; the rosettes of caulocystidia; and the mounds of pileocystidia. Usually the spores are dextrinoid at once; but in Tenn-19740, they were non-dextrinoid after 4 hours. For a comparison with G. penetrans and G. flavidellus, see discussion under each of these.

Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Singer, Nov. holland. pl. spec.: 471 (1951)
Fruitbodies singly or in clusters, large to very large, fleshy; pileus 50–150(–200) mm, dry, bright yellow, ochre-yellow, orange-yellow, ochre-rusty to rusty orange, surface distinctly innately tomentose-fibril- lose to tomentose-scaly, the covering being yellow, yellow-rusty to rusty brown; stipe with cylindrical upper part but with fusiformly inflated to thickly bulbous lower part and fusiformly attenuated base, with prominent membranaceous annulus when young; taste distinctly bitter, spores large, mostly 8.5–10.5 × 5.5–6.8 μm, ellipsoid, ovoid-ellipsoid to amygdaliform-ellipsoid, medium to coarsely verrucose to verrucose-rugulose. Growing as a saprophyte or parasite on wood of deciduous trees, rarely of conifers, in areas with a warm or temperate climate, never in mountains, common.
Description: Fruitbodies growing singly or in fascicles. Pileus 30–150(–200) mm, fleshy, at first subglobose, then convex or broadly obtusely conical, sometimes plano- convex when old, margin slightly inflexed, without umbo, surface dry, mat, not translucently striate, not hygro- phanous, ground colour bright yellow, ochre-yellow, orange-yellow, ochre-rusty to rusty orange at centre (depending on age and weather), towards the margin bright yellow when fresh, the entire surface distinctly in- nately tomentose-fibrillose to tomentose-scaly, scales densely arranged, mostly appressed but slightly upraised when old, this covering being yellow, yellow-rusty to rusty brown, pileus margin sometimes with overlapping, tomen- tose-membranaceous, bright yellow to yellow-ochre veil rem- nants. Lamellae crowded, L = 50–80, l = 1–7, 4–12(–15) mm high, segmentiform or slightly ventricose, near the stipe emarginate and decurrent with a small tooth, rarely slightly decurrent, at first pale yellow to sordid yellow, at maturity rusty yellow to yellow-brown with a rusty tinge, rusty brown spotted, edge even or finely irregularly serrulate, pale yellow. Stipe very variable in shape and size (depending on sort of stipe insertion, age and size of the whole fruitbody or cluster), 50–150(–200) × 10–30(–40) mm, upper part cylin- drical, in lower part either fusiformly inflated with conicaly attenuated or even rooting base or thick bulbous (up to 50 mm, in extreme cases even up to 100 mm), mostly with fusiformly attenuated base, annulus (veil remnant) prominent, about 5–15 mm broad, upright, membranaceous, bright yellow to rusty yellow, partly missing at maturity and remaining only as a disrupted fibrillose-tomentose annular zone on stipe surface, stipe pale (lemon) yellow and smooth above the annulus, below the annulus yellow, yellow-ochre to ochre, surface ochre rusty to rusty fibrillose-grooved, spotted to marbled. Context thick, fleshy, in young fruit- bodies yellowish-white to pale yellow in pileus, but yellow-ochre below pileus cuticle and above the lamellae, in stipe pale yellow to deep lemon yellow, in base brownish, in old- er fruitbodies darker, bright yellow to yellow-rusty, with 5 % KOH immediately orange to orange-brown. Taste immediately distinctly bitter. Smell indistinct or aromatically fruity on section.
Spores (8.0–)8.5–10.5(–11.2) × (5.2–)5.5–6.8(–7.2) μm, E = 1.35–1.80, Q = 1.50, ellipsoid to amygdaliform-ellip- soid in side view, with suprahilar depression; ellipsoid, ovoid-ellipsoid to amygdaliform-ellipsoid in face view, rusty yellow in KOH, hilar appendix small but visible, ornamentation very variable in appearance and degree of development, in fully developed spores medium to coarse, verrucose to verrucose-rugulose, up to 1 μm high, in some spores poorly developed or fully absent, with small and sometimes poorly developed suprahilar disc, spore protoplasm colouring vinaceous reddish brown in Melzer’s reagent (dextrinoid) but wall remaining bright yellow to yel- low-rusty. Basidia 26–31 × 6–8 μm, 4(2)-spored, narrowly clavate or cylindrical with 1–2 slight constrictions. Basidio- lae 6–19 × 5–6 μm, narrowly clavate. Cheilocystidia abun- dant at edge or mixed with basidiolae, 21–37 × 5–9 μm, variable in shape, mostly lageniform to narrowly lageniform but also narrowly to moderately fusiform, utriform, clavate, mostly with a cylindrical or subcapitate to capitate upper part, head 3–6(–8) μm, thin-walled, hyaline, sometimes with a granular or homogeneous yellow content. Pleurocystidia absent. Lamellar trama regular, of parallel hyphae 3–12 μm broad, cells cylindrical, hyaline. Velum (from an- nulus) composed of parallel to slightly interwoven hyphae 5–12 μm broad, cells cylindrical, mostly hyaline, some of them with yellow-rusty granular content, wall only slightly yellow-rusty incrusted. Pileus cuticle a cutis of densely arranged hyphae 4–10 μm broad, the whole layer yellow, cells yellow-rusty incrusted, cylindrical, this layer covered with a thin layer of ascending and interwoven velum hyphae (see above), in a scalp visible as a loose net or cords of velum hyphae forming the fibrillose to scaly pileus covering, cells yellow-rusty incrusted, with slightly clavate terminal cells; pileocystidia absent. Stipe cuticle a cutis, yellow-rusty coloured, cells cylindrical, 2–6 μm broad, terminal elements capitate or clavate, at places covered with nests of ascend- ing velum hyphae (see above); true caulocystidia resem- bling cheilocystidia sometimes present but rare. Clamp connections abundant in all tissues.
Fructification: August – October (CR).
Ecology: In the Czech Republic, G. spectabilis is mostly found as a saprophyte on dead wood of broadleaved trees, especially on stumps, fallen trunks and wood in soil (roots etc.). Less frequently it grows as a parasite on roots or on the base of living trees. Most finds are from Quercus spp. (Q. robur if the tree species was noted). Other known hosts from the CR: Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Acer pseu- doplatanus, Populus alba, Salix caprea, Carpinus betulus, Tilia, Betula, Ulmus, Corylus. Finds from conifers (Pinus) are known from Southern Bohemia.

Gymnopilus subearlei R. Valenz., Guzmán & J. Castillo, Boln. Soc. mex. Micol. 15: 91 (1981)
(Complete English Description Needed)

Gymnopilus subpurpuratus Guzm.-Dáv. & Guzmán, Mycotaxon 41(1): 50 (1991)
Pileus 18-53 mm broad, convex, plano convex to plane, finally uplifted, dry, squarrose to apprcsed-squamulose, especially on the disc, small scales or fibrilles reddish brown to purple, back-ground color to orange yellowish, tight reddish yeUow or purple-yellow, scales sometimes evanescent with age, margin entire, with ferruginous-brown arachnoid remains of the partial veil; pileus surface staining green when bruising. Lamellae adnate with or without a decurrent tooth to subdecurrent. close, broad to subventricose, yelow to ferruginous orange or ferruginous brown when mature, edge entire to subfarinaceous, yellowish. Stipe 10-30 × 2-6 (-9) mm, central to execntric, equa slightly broader at the base, folded like an ‘L’ or suberect, fibrillose, grayish white with purple or reddish stains, solid to hollow. Veil arachnoid, ferruginous brown, forming an inconspicuous apical fibrillose annulus. Context whitish to yellow-whitish. Odor farinaceous and sweet, taste bitter. KOH staining pileus with otivaceous-green spots with purple margins; on the lamellae yellowish brown; on the stipe purple brown to almost black and on the context greenish yellow.
Spores ferruginous brown in mass, 6-8 × 4-4.8 um, ellipsoid, verrucuJose, germ pore absent, yellowish-orange-brown, with refringent content, dextrinoid. Basidia 19.2-24 × 5.6-7.2 um, bi-ortetrasporic, clavate or subcylindric, somewith central constriction, with granulose, yellowish gray content. sterigmata 1.64 um long. Pleurocystidia absent Cheilocystidia 16.8-28 × 5.6-7.6 um, apex 3.2-6.4 um in diam., flask-shaped, subcapitatc or capitate, some with a long neck, with granulose, yellowish gray contents. Gill trama subparalleL Pileus trama interwoven, hyphae 4-24 um broad, septate, with thin waiL Cuticle with hyphae 4-14.4 um broad, postrate, yellowish, except for fibrills, wich are yellowish-orange-brown, some with distinct incrustations. Pileocystidia absent caulocystidia 24-68 X 3.6-12 um. apex 4.8-8 um broad, cylindric, ventricose-cylindric subcapitate or capitate, some flask shaped or clavate, hyaline or rarely yellowish gray or yellowish range, present only in the stipe apex, in tufts, very common. Clamp connections present Laticiferous hyphae present A yellowish pigment is disolvcd when mounted in KOH.
HABITAT. Gregarious to eespitose in a garden on pine-wood of unknown origin.
OBSERVATIONS: G. subpurpuratus is characterized by the small fibrillose scales on the disc, the greenish stains and the veil forming an anular zone. The green staining suggests a relationship with G. aeruginosus (Peck) Sing., however, this latter species is greenish with yellow and reddish spots, more scaly, has pleurocystidia and has a different type of caulocystidia (Hesler, 1969; lmazeki & Hongo, 1971 and Valenzuela et al., 1981). It is also close to G. peliolepis (Speg.) Sing., but it has reddish-purple scales, does not stain green and the cbeilocystidia are rusoid or ampultaceous, non-capitate. It also is related to G. lureofolius (Peck) Sing. but is distinguished by the reddish to vinacous context, discoloring to yellowish (Singer, 1951-A & 1951-B; Hesler, 1969). G. luteoviridis Thiers stains green, but has pleurocystidia and no caulocystidia (Thiers, 1959). Macroscopically, it resembles to G. purpurarus (Cooke et Mass.) Sing., but that species has larger spores (Singer, 1969; Lazo,1984). The material Guzrnan-Davalos also has spores 8-12 × 4~.4um, that are ellipsoid-elongate in addition to the typical spores.

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Follow-Up Corresondence
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2019-04-13 12:03:48 CDT (-0400)

I appreciate it!

Short answer, No.
By: Ryan Patrick (donjonson420)
2019-04-09 18:52:42 CDT (-0400)

It’s a scanned copy of my original binded version. I know this monograph is hard to find on the web and figured you may find it useful for some of the descriptions needed for your project.

Thank you!
By: Excited delirium [EXD]▼ (Excited delirium [EXD]▼)
2019-04-09 04:31:38 CDT (-0400)

Do you happen to have an OCR-enabled PDF version of this? I have limited “digital capabilities” at the moment.

North American Species of Gymnopilus – L.R. Hesler. (Mycol. Mem. 3: 80 (1969))
By: Ryan Patrick (donjonson420)
2019-04-08 21:53:31 CDT (-0400)