The following Panaeolopsis species are recommended for study to determine the presence or absence of Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Beaocystin), Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), Aeruginascin, Phenylethylamine, Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocybin, Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocin, Muscarine, Tryptophan, and Seratonin. Previously undiscovered pre-cursor chemicals to Psilocybin should be evaluated and named if detected. If none of the above-mentioned chemicals are present, the dominant chemical(s) in this genus is/are discovered and published. In addition, a major chemical and a minor chemical are detected in this genus. Both chemicals are isolated and synthesized for study – for the benefit of humanity.
Panaeolopsis brasiliensis Singer 1976, (also see Species Fungorum: Panaeolopsis brasiliensis)
Panaeolopsis nirimbii Watling & A.M. Young 1983, (also see Species Fungorum: Panaeolopsis nirimbii)
Pileus 10-15 X 20mm, fusiform-ellipsoid with margin firmly adpressed to stipe and forming distinct sterile flap (2mm broad) around stipe, not expanding or expanding slowly and only slightly, pallid fawn except for darker marginal band; margin lacking velar remnants. Stipe 30- 50 × 2-3mm, cylindric, whitish or pale brown (fulvous), pruinose but soon becoming smooth, dry, solid. Gills crowded, ascending, greyish black with distinctly paler margin. Flesh thin, whitish to pallid brown. Basidiospores 12-14×8.5-9.5×7-7.5μm, lenticular-mitriform, elliptic in side-view, truncate because of large, distinct very slightly excentric germ-pore, smooth, black tinted bronze s.m., not discolouring in conc, sulphuric acid. Basidia 2- or 4-spored, 22-25×11-12μm, with prominent sterigmata. Cheilocystidia in a broad strongly adhering band, 24.5-36.5×5-6.5μm, ampullaceous to fusiform with cylindric (4.5-5.5μm) neck and obtuse apex, hyaline, thin-walled, frequently very strongly pedicellate; pleurocystidia apparently absent. Hymenophoral trama regular of narrow, slightly coloured (fulvous) interwoven hyphae 2.5-5μm broad; sub- hymenium and lateral strata reduced. Pileipellis a palisadoderm of globose or isodiametric, hyaline, thin-walled cells, 15-21μm broad; pilocystidia absent. Stipe cortex of parallel, hyaline, cylindric hyphae 5-l2.5μm broad giving rise at stipe- apex to irregularly fusiform to ampulliform caulocystidia, 27.5-42.5x 12.5-15μm, apex<4μm intermixed with elongate ellipsoid cells. Clamp-connections present but not abundant.
Australia, New South Wales, Quakers’ Hill, 31 i 1981, Young. DAR 42009 (holotype DAR; iso. E (under Young in Wat. 16452), herb. Young); same locality, 24 i 1982, Wat. 16453.
This species differs from Panaeolopsis brasiliensis Singer in the strongly pedicellate cystidia, narrower, less subglobose basidiospores, coloration of the basidiome in shades of brown, as opposed to dark grey (‘atro griseus’), lack of apical mucro to the pileus and much more robust habit. From P. sanmartiana Singer it differs in the distinctly lenticular- mitriform basidiospores and the darker colour of the basidiome, and possibly in the more robust stature, although the last character will have to be re-assessed in the light of future collections. The present fungus has, however, been collected in considerable quantity on two separate occasions and, on both the characters have been constant.
Panaeolopsis obtusa Contu 1998, (also see Species Fungorum: Panaeolopsis obtusa)
Panaeolopsis sanmartiniana Singer 1969, (also see Species Fungorum: Panaeolopsis sanmartiniana)
🍄 Comparison of the genera Panaeolopsis, Panaeolus, Galeropsis, Weraroa, and Copelandia. Also, similar appearing secotioid fungi are compared, including Leratiomyces cucullatus.
🍄 Full genome DNA phylogeny is published with sequences added to Genbank.
🍄 Synonyms are determined if applicable. Mycobank, Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum, and Mushroom Observer names are updated – if appropriate.
🍄 Complete taxonomic descriptions published using all names listed above
🍄 Paper is provided in 5-7 languages (English, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian) as a courtesy to the public.
🍄 All chemicals analyzed to determine chirality using Atomic Force Microscopy.
🍄 At least three (3) distinguishing features for each taxon are provided, with emphasis on macroscopic features.
🍄 Chemical transcience and lifespan is discussed and observed in lab myceliums, freshly harvested wild collections, and herbarium collections.
🍄 Taxonomically useful color photos are published for each species
🍄 Mating studies are performed. Compatability or non-comptability is determined when synonyms require additional evidence.
🍄 Myceliums are observed in an experiment in which electromagnetic light (320-400 nanometers) is aimed using slightly nuanced distances and time durations. In contrast, (blue light 440 – 490 nm) and green light (490 – 570 nm) (see nanometer graph elsewhere) tests should be conducted with great patience in separate groups. Dextrose is added to antibiotic agar petri dishes in a separate test group (Test Group 4) in which the myceliums fully colonize, followed by repetitive exposures to light in the 320-400 nm wavelength in Test Group 1, blue light in Test Group 2, then green light in Test Group 3. Additionally, some colonized dishes are selected for cold-shocking to assist in primordia formation (Test Group 5). Another group (Test Group 6) is provided additionally with a substrate rich in soluble Nitrogen, soluble Phosphorous, and soluble Dextrose. In Test Group 7 species of grass known to co-occur with Panaeolopsis species are grown alongside Panaeolopsis. See the following speech and fast forward to 7 minutes in: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M9joL8spvS8#fauxfullscreen
🍄 Techniques of growing Panaeolopsis species in mycelial culture and methods for fruitbody production are published, including growth parameters.
🍄 Quantification of blue-to-green collections are made, if present, with emphasis on where (on the basidiocarps) this color spectrum most frequently occurs and why.
🍄 Every mycelium achieving luxuriant mycelium status is cloned and placed into standard, sterilized malt agar ALONG WITH several common bacteria species (individually) that negatively impact humans via gastronomy-related conditions. These myceliums will be tested as winning adveraries with anti-bacterial properties just as Alexander Fleming performed with a Penicillium species. Fleming was able to defeat a Staphylococcus species. Additionally, see the following test: https://www.researchgate.net/...
🍄 Detection of light-emitting bacteria on the stipitipellis, hymenium, and pileipellis is performed using a system somewhat like this: https://www.hygiena.com/...
🍄 A worldwide monographic treatment is then published for the genera Panaeolopsis, Panaeolus, Galeropsis, Weraroa, and Copelandia.