Following the status change of the genus Psilocybe (Fr.) P. Kumm. proposed by Redhead et al. (2007), and accepted by the International Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (Norvell, 2007), Psilocybe sensu lato is now divided into two genera: Psilocybe sensu stricto and Deconica (W.G. Sm.) P. Karst.
All bluing, neurotropic species are included in Psilocybe sensu stricto. The bluing color is the oxidative reaction of Psilocybin and Psilocin (Benedict & Tyler 1967). The non-bluing, non-neurotropic species are placed into the genus Deconica. This is not based on current, full genomic DNA phylogenies. The basis in this instance results from emerging chemosystematics. Molecular systematics research does support separation of psilocybinic taxa of Psilocybe (clade ‘/psychedelia’ of Moncalvo et al. 2002) from the non-bluing species (Matheny et al. 2006).
Redhead et al. (2007) proposed conserving the genus Psilocybe with Psilocybe semilanceata (a hallucinogenic species) as the conserved type. The name Deconica (W.G. Sm.) P. Karst. then became available for the non-hallucinogenic clade. The type species for the genus Deconica is Deconica bullacea (Bull.) Fr. (1821).
Not all non-hallucinogenic species were transferred into Deconica in 2007. Noordeloos, M.E. (2009) transferred several names. Ramírez-Cruz et al. (2012) also produced a study recommending transfers. Again in 2016, Desjardin and Perry transferred two Psilocybe species to Deconica. Some species still remain in need of name amendation.
(A.) Not all Psilocybin-producing species present bluing,
(B.) Not all collections of Psilocybin-producing species present bluing,
(C.) And not all individual specimens in every collection of Psilocybin-producing species exhibit bluing.
For these reasons it is now recommended that questionable species in Psilocybe and Deconica undergo present-day, state-of-the-art chemosystematics for the presence or absence of Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin※ (Baeocystin), Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and Aeruginascin – at a minimum. Pre-cursors to Psilocybin should also be selected for testing. Examination for the following is recommended: Tryptophan, Tryptamine, 4-Hydroxytryptophan, D-Lysergic Acid, N-Methyltryptamine, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocybin, and Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocin.
※ According to Mycologist Paul Stamets, the chemical currently known as baeocystin (baeocystine) was incorrectly named. A misnomer occurred as a result of a mis-identified collection of what was actually Psilocybe cyanescens (and not Psilocybe baeocystis). He proposes Cyanescin as the new name, and suggests it be studied for human therapeutic potential. See https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M9joL8spvS8#fauxfullscreen (About 58 minutes in).
The following species are recommended for proper transfer upon scientific confirmation showing negative results for bluing and negative results for the neuro-active chemicals mentioned above:
Psilocybe calongei G. Moreno & Esteve-Rav., Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 90(3): 411 (1988)
Psilocybe fuscofulva Peck, Bull. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 1(no. 2): 7 (1887)
Psilocybe novozoncuantlensis Guzmán, Ram.-Cruz, Ram.-Guill. & E. Gándara, Revta Mex. Micol. 23: 5 (2006)
Psilocybe oregonensis Guzmán, Docums Mycol. 29(no. 116): 43 (2000)
Psilocybe phillipsii f. phillipsii (Berk. & Broome) Vellinga & Noordel., Persoonia 16(1): 129 (1995)
Psilocybe physaloides var. physaloides (Bull.) Quél. 1872; Hymenogastraceae
Psilocybe semistriata (Peck) Guzmán, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 74: 193 (1983)
Psilocybe semistriata sensu Watling, Checklist of Basidiomycota of Great Britain and Ireland (2005)
Psilocybe turficola J. Favre, Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 55: 196 (1939)
Psilocybe umbrina E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin, Sydowia 61 (1): 28 (2009)
Psilocybe uruguayensis Singer ex Guzmán, Mycotaxon 7(2): 250 (1978)
(Species List Pending)
▲ A new phylogenetic comparison of Deconica versus Psilocybe and Panaeolus. Rather than using only the universal DNA barcode region (ITS), a complete genome comparison is made between each collection. Sequences are added to Genbank.
▲ DNA is analyzed for a positive or negative presence of the known Psilocybin genes found in Psilocybe species.
▲ The dominant, bioactive and unique chemical emanating from the genus Deconica is published and considered for the benefit of humanity. In addition, a major and a minor chemical from this genus are selected for study for the benefit of humans. Intuitive synthesis methods are published for each chemical. Note: Not only the first and second flushes of a fruiting species are tested, but importantly, the third and fourth flushes are analyzed and compared.
▲ Complete English descriptions of each taxon are provided.
▲ Names are updated on Mycobank, Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum, and on Mushroom Observer.
▲ All chemicals are analyzed to determine chirality using Atomic Force Microscopy. Images are captured for release.
▲ Chemical transcience and lifespan are discussed and observed in lab myceliums, freshly harvested wild collections, and herbarium collections. Note: Not only the first and second flushes of a fruiting species are tested, but importantly, the third and fourth flushes are compared.
▲ A complimentary, contemporary, and aesthetic terrarium design is proposed to affordably study mushroom genera that require new technologies. It will have at a minimum the following powers:
△ Provide a sterile-enough environment to typically counter all contaminants
△ Have accurate controls to set temperatures ranging from 3.333 to 29.444 degrees celsius. A 48 hour cold shock button is included.
△ Have accurate controls to set relative humidity from 0 to 98%. An additional control is added to enable rain drop mode to replace manual misting.
△ Timed lighting and timed darkness to include the full electromagnetic light spectrum and lux using controls.
△ Gas cartridge area for sporadic and consistent Oxygen boosts. This includes the ability of several “fresh air exchanges” daily. Also, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, and Oxygen levels are accurately displayed.
△ At least three magnification “windows” (top and sides) to view carpophores for macroscopic features that stand out at 10x or 20×. They will need anti-fog technology and have a tendency to roll off excess water drops.
△ Fast, intuitive disassembly for easy cleaning using either sterilization or hot soap water. A kit case is provided to aesthetically hold each component when disassembled.
△ Safe, wireless technology is used throughout the terrarium if possible and whenever possible.
△ Terrariums are lightweight, tough, and stackable. They are also strongly scratch- and dent-resistant while providing the most transparent accurate view humanly possible.
△ Please see the following URL discussing “Food Computers” as well: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=of-fBY2Zj3Y
▲ Myceliums are observed in an experiment in which electromagnetic light (320-400 nanometers) is aimed using slightly nuanced distances and time durations. In contrast, (blue light 440 – 490 nm) and green light (490 – 570 nm) (see nanometer graph elsewhere) tests should be conducted with great patience in separate groups. Dextrose is added to antibiotic agar petri dishes in a separate test group (Test Group 4) in which the myceliums fully colonize, followed by repetitive exposures to light in the 320-400 nm wavelength in Test Group 1, blue light in Test Group 2, then green light in Test Group 3. Additionally, some colonized dishes are selected for cold-shocking to assist in primordia formation (Test Group 5). Another group (Test Group 6) is provided additionally with a substrate rich in soluble Nitrogen, soluble Phosphorous, and soluble Dextrose. Also, see the following presentation and skip to 7 minutes in: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M9joL8spvS8#fauxfullscreen
Note: Not only the first and second flushes of a fruiting species are tested, but importantly, the third and fourth flushes are compared.
▲ Taxonomically useful color photos are aesthetically published for each species.
▲ Atleast three (3) distinguishing features are provided to assist in future identification of each listed species. Emphasis is placed not on microscopic characters, but on macroscopic characters – for in situ and photo-based identifications. If necessary, additional taxonomic characters may be expandable (s.l.) by including observations made using a hand lens or loupe (10x, 20x).
▲ Mating studies are performed. Compatability or non-comptability is determined when synonyms require additional evidence. The species in Deconica known to possess the most mating types are further tested for cryptic, rare compatability with Panaeolus cyanescens, Panaeolus cinctulus, and Psilocybe cubensis.
▲ A mycelium culture library is established using Deconica species. It is maintained and developed in conjuction with either a university herbarium or fungarium. This requires constant employment by a well-trained student, and that student will need gear, capabilties for sterile technique, and a semester-by-semester budget. The student will also need to train a back-up student with long-term employment intentions, and for substitutions.
▲ Paper is provided in 5-7 languages as a courtesy to the public (English, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian).
▲ A worldwide themed distribution map is shown (and intregated into) a month-to-month cycle showing the electromagnetic light spectrum changing throughout the year. This is important.
▲ A worldwide monograph for the genus Deconica is considered.
▲ For as many species as humanly possible, the worldwide community is asked to participate by providing time lapse film for help in identification. See this: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=b-nJ0ROGD14
▲ 3-dimensional, digital photogrammetry is designed for each species as seen here: https://sketchfab.com/...?
▲ Psilocybe fuscofulva, regardless of phylogenetic placement, if negative for neuro-active alkaloids, should be considered for transfer to Deconica.
Species Currently In Deconica
- Deconica acutuiscula Singer 1941
- Deconica aequatoriae (Singer) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica alpestris (Singer) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica angustispora (A.H. Sm.) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica argentina Speg. 1898
- Deconica atrorufa sensu auct.
- Deconica atrorufa (Schaeff.) P. Karst. 1879
- Deconica aureicystidiata (E. Horak & Desjardin) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2013
- Deconica australis E. Horak 1967
- Deconica baylisiana (E. Horak) J.A. Cooper 2014
- Deconica bryophila Peck 1894
- Deconica bullacea (Bull.) Sacc. 1887
- Deconica caricicola (P.D. Orton) Redhead 2012
- Deconica castanella (Peck) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica chionophila (Lamoure) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica citrispora (E. Horak) J.A. Cooper 2012
- Deconica coprophila (Bull.) P. Karst. 1879
- Deconica crobula (Fr.) Romagn. 1937
- Deconica deconicoides (E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin) Guzmán 2012
- Deconica examinata (Britzelm.) Sacc. 1895
- Deconica flocculosa (Bas & Noordel.) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica hartii (Ammirati) Ammirati & Redhead 2012
- Deconica horizontalis (Bull.) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica inquilina (Fr.) Romagn. 1937
- Deconica lipophila Oudem. 1898
- Deconica llogena (Sacc.) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica magica (Svrček) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica merdaria (Fr.) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica merdicola (Huijsman) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica micropora (Noordel. & Verduin) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica minuscula Wichanský 1967
- Deconica moelleri (Guzmán) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica montana (Pers.) P.D. Orton 1960
- Deconica montana var. macrospora (Noordel. & Verduin) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica montana var. montana (Pers.) P.D. Orton 1960
- Deconica musacearum (Singer) Cortez & P.S. Silva 2014
- Deconica muscorum P.D. Orton 1960
- Deconica neocaledonica (Guzmán & E. Horak) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2013
- Deconica neorhombispora (Guzmán) P.S. Silva, Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2013
- Deconica notha Sacc. 1887
- Deconica novae-zelandiae (Guzmán & E. Horak) J.A. Cooper 2012
- Deconica overeemii (E. Horak & Desjardin) Desjardin & B.A. Perry 2016
- Deconica parabilis (Britzelm.) Sacc. 1887
- Deconica pegleriana (Guzmán) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica phillipsii (Berk. & Broome) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica pirispora Murrill 1922
- Deconica pratensis (P.D. Orton) Noordel. 2011
- Deconica protea (Sacc.) Desjardin & B.A. Perry 2016
- Deconica pseudobullacea (Petch) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica rhombispora (Britzelm.) Singer 1951
- Deconica saloides (Bull.) P. Karst. 1879
- Deconica schoeneti (Bresinsky) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica semi-inconspicua (Guzmán & Trappe) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica semistriata sensu auct.
- Deconica sepulcrorum (Zoll.) Sacc. 1891
- Deconica subfusispora (F.H. Møller) Noordel. 2011
- Deconica submaritima (Contu & Guzmán) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica subviscida var. subviscida Peck 1888
- Deconica thailandensis (E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica tropicalis Speg. 1889
- Deconica umbrina (E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán 2012
- Deconica velifera (J. Favre) Noordel. 2009
- Deconica vorax (E. Horak) J.A. Cooper 2012
- Deconica xeroderma (Huijsman) Noordel. 2009
Awaiting MB/IF Updates, Community-Based Consensus/Dialogue
This list contains no observations.
The ICN alone never requires any kind of publication. It defines what is valid publication, legitimate publication, etc and which is the correct name to use among synonyms, given a taxonomic belief. I strongly recommend reading over it once – even though lots of parts are confusing, even skimming it will help a lot to understand what its purpose is.
The Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) is even more restricted, only relevant to some of those nomenclatural issues. Combining species into new genera, in general, is irrelevant to the NCF. Read their description here: http://www.ima-mycology.org/...
At least in most analyses. I said it would “require the transfer of active Psilocybe species” because Psilocybe fuscofulva is more closely related to active Psilocybe species than it is to any Deconica. It, and all Psilocybe species, are also likely more closely related to other genera like Stropharia, Hypholoma, Protostropharia, Leratiomyces and Agrocybe than they are to Deconica. Expanding Deconica to contain Psilocybe fuscofulva would require a non-monophyletic Deconica. If it were to exclude everything but the active Psilocybe species, it would still be paraphyletic at the very least. Hypholoma and Stropharia are both older genera (they would have priority: refer to ICN Chapter II Section 3) than Deconica, so expanding Deconica to include Psilocybe fuscofulva would require abandoning Deconica altogether.
“Transferring Psilocybe fuscofulva would also require the transfer of active Psilocybe species”
1. Can you clarify the finer ICN-related matters that would necessitate and mandate additional Psilocybe transfers?
2. Can you take a moment and also clarify the International Nomenclature Committee for Fungi related issues of transferring Psilocybe fuscofulva to Deconica?
3. What species do you currently know of that can and should be transferred to Deconica?
It’s just a non-active Psilocybe. Relatedness defines what is and isn’t a genus. Transferring Psilocybe fuscofulva would also require the transfer of active Psilocybe species and probably a lot of the Strophariaceae into Deconica, which would require sinking Deconica into Stropharia or something else weird like theat.