Species List: Additional Green To Blue Hue Spectrum Collections ◮ Recommended For Study – P1 (1415)
When: 2019-04-08
Observations: 43

Notes:

A present day, state-of-the-art test for the presence or absence of Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Baeocystin)※, Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and Aeruginascin – at a minimum – is needed. Undiscovered pre-cursors and post-cursors to Psilocybin should also be selected for testing.

Examination for the following is absolutely recommended:

1-Methylpsilocin,
4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid (4-CI-IAA),
4-Hydroxytryptophan,
4-Hydroxytryptamine,
4-Hydroxy-L-Tryptophan,
4-Hydroxyindole,
4-HO-MET,
4-HO-MiPT,
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid,
5-Hydroxytryptamine,
5-Hydroxytryptophan,
5,6-Dihydroxyindole (DHI),
7-Acetyl-4-Methy-Lazulene-1-Carbaldehyde,
7-Isopropenyl-4-Methyl-Azulene-1-Carboxylic Acid,
(7-isopropenyl-4-methylazulen-1-yl) Methyl Stearate,
15-Hydroxy-3,6-Dihydrolactarazulene,
15-Hydroxy-6,7-Dihydrolactarazulene,
Amatoxins and Amanitins,
Azulene,
β-carbolines,
Baeocystin(1−),
Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocybin,
Bis-Trimethyl-Silyl-Psilocin,
Bufotenin,
Bufotenidine,
Cathinone,
Chamazulene,
D-Lysergic Acid,
Dopa,
Dopamine,
Dopaminechrome,
Dopamine Quinone,
Guaiazulene,
Gyrocyanin,
Harmane,
Harmine,
Harmol,
Hispidin,
Indigoidine,
Indole,
Indole-3-Acetic Acid,
Indole-3-Butyric Acid,
Indolyl,
Isatin,
Leucochrome,
Luciferin,
Luciferase,
Matricin,
Melatonin,
Muscarine,
N-Methyltryptamine,
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine,
N-Acetylserotonin (NAS, Normelatonin),
Nitric Oxide,
Norepinephrine,
Norharmine,
Norpsilocin,
Oxindole (2-Indolone),
Oxytocin,
Phallotoxins and Phalloidins,
Phenylethylamine, (Which May Increase Heart Rate),
Prolactin,
Psilacetin (O-Acetylpsilocin, 4-AcO-DMT),
Psilocybin(1-),
Quinone Methide,
Sanguinone A,
Sanguinone B,
Seratonin (5-HT),
Tryptamine,
Tryptophan (L-Tryptophan)
Variegatic Acid,
Vasopressin.

Levels of each chemical above, when present in basidiocarps or myceliums, should be quantified in higher precision than ever before. When no amounts are found, it should be reported. A separate study should be considered to describe the human effects of each isolated, individual chemical listed above. See: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/...

According to Mycologist Paul Stamets, the chemical currently known as baeocystin (baeocystine) was incorrectly named. A misnomer occurred as a result of a mis-identified collection of what was actually Psilocybe cyanescens (and not Psilocybe baeocystis). He proposes cyanescin as the new name, and suggests it be studied for human therapeutic potential. See https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M9joL8spvS8#fauxfullscreen (About 58 minutes in).

The Species

Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boud., Hist. Class. Discom. Eur. (Paris): 54 (1907)
Clitocybula azurea Singer, Beih. Sydowia 7: 18 (1973)
Conocybe aeruginosa Romagn., Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 84: 368 (1969) 1968
=Pholiotina aeruginosa (Romagn.) M.M. Moser, in Gams, Kl. Krypt.-Fl., Bd II b/2, ed. 4 (Stuttgart) 2b/2: 283 (1978)
Conocybe cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Kühner [as ‘cyanopoda’], Encyclop. Mycol. 7: 128 (1935)
=Galerula cyanopus G.F. Atk., Proc. Am. phil. Soc. 57: 367 (1918)
=Pholiotina cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Singer, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, ser. 2, Sporov. Rast. 6: 425 (1950)
Conocybe siligineoides R. Heim, Revue Mycol., Paris 22: 197 (1957)
Conocybe velutipes (Velen.) Hauskn. & Svrček, in Hausknecht, Czech Mycol. 51(1): 68 (1999)
= Conocybe kuehneriana Singer [as ‘kuhneriana’], Beih. Nova Hedwigia 29: 212 (1969)
Dictyonema huaorani Dal-Forno, Schmull, Lücking & Lawrey, Bryologist 117(4): 389 (2014)
Entoloma bloxamii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. [as ‘bloxami’], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 684 (1887)
Entoloma coeruleogracilis G.M. Gates & Noordel., Persoonia 19(2): 167 (2007)
Entoloma medianox C.F. Schwarz, Index Fungorum 220: 1 (2015)
Entoloma melanocephalum G. Stev., Kew Bull. 16(2): 231 (1962)
Entoloma serrulatum (Fr.) Hesler, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 21: 140 (1967)
Entoloma subviduense (Largent) Noordel. & Co-David, Persoonia 23: 174 (2009)
Entoloma yatesii (Murrill) Blanco-Dios, Tarrelos, Revista da Federation Galera de Micoloxia 17: 38 (2015)
Galerina steglichii Besl, Z. Mykol. 59(2): 216 (1993)
Hymenagaricus olivaceus Heinem., Bull. Jard. Bot. natn. Belg. 55(3-4): 494 (1985)
Lepiota aeruginea Murrill, Lloydia 7(4): 305 (1945) 1944
Lepiota atrocoerulea Rick [as ‘atro-caerulea’], Brotéria, sér. bot. 18(no. 2): 50 (1920)
Lepiota azurea Singer, Lilloa 25: 278 (1952) 1951
Lepiota caerulea Beardslee, J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc. 31: 146 (1915)
Lepiota citrophylloides Sathe & S.M. Kulk., Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Monograph No. 1 Agaricales (Mushrooms) of South West India (Pune): 55 (1981) 1980
=Lepiota coerulescens Peck, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 26: 63 (1899)
Lepiota cyanea Rick, Brotéria, sér. bot. 18(no. 2): 52 (1920)
Lepiota cyanescens Beeli, Bull. Soc. R. Bot. Belg. 59: 109 (1927)
Lepiota cyanozonata Longyear, Report Mich. Acad. Sci. 3: 57 (1901)
Lepiota subcitrophylla Hongo, J. Jap. Bot. 31(5): 148 (1956)
Lepiota trichroma Montoya & Bandala, Mycotaxon 94: 112 (2006) 2005
Lepiota virescens (Speg.) Morgan, J. Mycol. 12(6): 245 (1906)
Lepiota virescens Pat., Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris 30(6): 529 (1924)
Leucoagaricus atroazureus J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1144 (2010)
Leucoagaricus coerulescens (Peck) J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu [as ‘caerulescens’] 2010
=Leucoagaricus caerulescens (Peck) J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102 (5): 1147 (2010)
=Leucoagaricus erythrella e. (subsp.) virescens Speg.
=Leucoagaricus virescens (Speg.) Morgan
Leucoagaricus flavovirens J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1143 (2010)
Leucoagaricus houaynhangensis Sysouphanthong, Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2018; 45(3)
Leucoagaricus sulphurellus (Pegler) B.P. Akers, in Akers, Angels & Kimbrough, Mycotaxon 76: 48 (2000)
Leucoagaricus viriditinctus (Berk. & Broome) J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1146 (2010)
Leucocoprinus viridiflavoides (B.P. Akers & Angels) E. Ludw., Pilzkompendium (Eching) 3: 545 (2012)
=Basionym: Leucoagaricus viridiflavoides B.P. Akers & Angels, in Akers, Angels & Kimbrough, (2000)
Leucocoprinus viridiflavus (Petch) E. Ludw., Pilzkompendium (Eching) 3: 554 (2012)
=Lepiota viridiflava Petch, Ann. R. bot. Gdns Peradeniya 6(3): 195 (1917)
=Leucoagaricus viridiflavus (Petch) T.K.A. Kumar & Manim., Mycotaxon 108: 399 (2009)
Massospora levispora R.S. Soper, Can. J. Bot. 41: 875 (1963)
Massospora platypediae R.S. Soper [as ‘platypedia’], Mycotaxon 1(1): 23 (1974)
Omphalotus olivascens H.E. Bigelow, O.K. Mill. & Thiers, Mycotaxon 3(3): 363 (1976)
Pholiotina smithii (Watling) Enderle, in Enderle & Hübner, Z. Mykol. 65(1): 16 (1999)
=Conocybe smithii Watling, Lloydia 30(2): 152 (1967)
=Galera cyanopes Kauffman, Publications Mich. geol. biol. Surv., Biol. Ser. 5 26: 500 (1918)
=Pholiotina smithii (Watling) Enderle, in Bon, Docums Mycol. 21(no. 84): 76 (1992)
Rossbeevera pachydermis (Zeller & C.W. Dodge) T. Lebel [as ‘Rosbeeva pachyderma’], in Lebel, Orihara & Maekawa, Fungal Diversity 52(1): 64 + 73 (2012)

Below: An unidentified, bluing Leucoagaricus species (Kalatope Wildlife Sanctuary, India)

Descriptions Of The Species

Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boud., Hist. Class. Discom. Eur. (Paris): 54 (1907)
Apothecia when fresh to 4 cm in diameter, very brittle, scattered or in small clusters of 3-15, essentially sessile, cup-shaped with the mouth constricted, sometimes split like 0tidea. Exterior pale yellow or brownish with a distinct green tinge, finely pruinose, smooth. Flesh pale yellow, to 1 mm thick. Hymenium smooth, bright orange-yellow with a mottling of blue-green, especially where bruised.
Ectal excipulum about 0.1 mm thick; hyphae of swollen cells, barrel-shaped to subglobose, up to 20(-30) µm in diameter, generally resinously coated. Medullary excipulum of the textura porrecta to intricata types; hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, occasionally branched and septate, 4-10(-15) µm in diameter. Paraphyses cylindrical to wavy, some tapering in the apical 20 µm, 2.5-3.5 µm in diameter, generally septate and branched 40-60 µm below apices; contents homogeneous (water or KOH preparations). Asci cylindrical, generally with a rather truncated apex, not bluing in Melzer’s reagent, 8-spored, 110-135 × 8-9 µm. Ascospores at first 2-seriate but when mature 1-seriate, globose or subglobose, (5.5-)6-6.5(-7) µm; the wall smooth, slightly thickened (to 0.5 µm), hyaline, pale yellow in Melzer’s.
Substrate: on soil among mosses or sometimes attached to buried rotten wood, apparently only under conifers.
Distribution: New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.

Clitocybula azurea Singer, Beih. Sydowia 7: 18 (1973)
(To Be Developed)

Conocybe aeruginosa Romagn., Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 84: 368 (1969) 1968
=Pholiotina aeruginosa (Romagn.) M.M. Moser, in Gams, Kl. Krypt.-Fl., Bd II b/2, ed. 4 (Stuttgart) 2b/2: 283 (1978)
Pileus 10–35 mm broad, campanulate or obtusely conical at first then conico-convex to plano-convex with large umbo, occasionally with revolute margin, hygrophanous, when moist at first blue-green (resem- bling pileus of Psilocybe aeruginosa) with dark blue-green centre, soon discolouring in marginal zone to olivaceous grey, finally ochraceous, at centre retaining blue-green to greenish grey colour for a long time, translucently striate up to three-fourths of the radius, on drying pale greenish at centre, to the margin pale ochraceous; surface smooth or slightly wrinkled around centre. Lamellae, L = 23–33, l = 1 (3), mod- erately distant, adnexed, ventricose, up to 4 mm broad, pale ochraceous then ochre- to orange-brown. Stipe 25–50 × 1.5–5 mm, cylindrical or slightly thicker towards base, fistulose, whitish, minutely pruinose- striate lengthwise. Context thin, concolorous. Smell weak, indistinctive to sweetish-fruity. Taste unknown. Spore print not recorded.
Spores 8.0–11.0(11.5) × 4.5–6.0 μm, av. ± 9.0–9.5 × 5.0–5.5 μm, Q = 1.6–2.0, Qav. = 1.75–1.85, not flattened, ellipsoid- to ovoid-oblong in frontal view, often subamygdaliform in face-view, ochraceous in water, brownish orange in ammonia, thin-walled with small, although distinct, central germ pore, c. 1.0 μm wide. Basidia 17–30 × 8.0–9.5 μm, clavate, 4-spored. Lamella edge almost sterile with scattered basidia. Cheilocystidia (21)24–42(50) × 6.0–10 μm, lageniform to fusiform, rarely utriform, tapering into a short to long, obtuse neck, 3.5–4.5 μm wide, not capitate. Hymenophoral trama made up of cylindrical to strongly inflated elements, 3.5–37 μm broad. Pileipellis an epitheloid hymeniderm, made up of spheropedunculate and clavate cells, 30–65 × 8.0–18(30) μm, hyaline or pale yellow-brown. Pileocystidia scattered, 23–42 × 6.0–12 μm, similar to cheilocystidia with neck 3.3–4.0 μm broad. Stipitipellis a cutis made up of cylindrical hyphae, 3.0–6.0 μm wide. Caulocystidia at stipe apex usually in clusters, 20–55(80) × 5.0–12 μm, like cheilocystidia varying from cylindrical to lageniform or clavate. Clamp-connections present.
HABITAT & DISTR. — Saprotrophic, solitary or in small groups, terrestrial, on a path through Fagus forest on moist, humus-rich, sandy soil among Urtica dioica and Glechoma hederacea; elsewhere recorded from a roadside and near burnt wood under Fagus and on a forest clearing. Aug.–Oct. Very rare in the Netherlands (Ede, Hullenberg), also known from Belgium, France, Germany, and Switzerland but very rare everywhere.
Young and mature basidiocarps can be easily identified by their blue-green pileus, at least at centre. Old basidiocarps may lose this colour completely and then they are difficult to recognise.

Conocybe cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Kühner [as ‘cyanopoda’] 1935
=Pholiotina cyanopus (G. F. Atk.) Singer
Basionym: Galerula cyanopus G.F. Atk. 1918
Pileus about 10 mm wide, plano-convex, bi-coloured with pale margin and darker centre, hygrophanous, striate when moist. Lamellae adnate, moderately distant, rusty brown. Stipe up to 40×1 mm, cylindrical, whitish, greyish below, base bluish-green, surface pubescent.
Spores 7–9×4.5–6 μm, average 8.1×5.2 μm, Q=1.4–1.6, ellipsoid, not lentiform, with slightly thickened wall and distinct germ-pore, orange yellow in KOH. Basidia 4-spored, 17–21×8–9.5 μm. Clamp connections not seen. Cheilocystidia 20–50×8.5–11 μm, lageniform, sometimes with more swollen body and subcapitate apex. Stipitipellis with fasciculate caulocystidia similar to cheilocystidia but larger (up to 60×15 μm). Pileipellis hymeniform, composed of sphaer-opedunculate elements mixed with some cylindrical to sublageniform pileocystidia (up to 35×6 μm).
Pholiotina cyanopus is easily recognised by the base of the stipe staining bluish when bruised; sometimes, this staining can be delayed or even very weak, then the combination of microscopical characters makes it possible to arrive at a correct determination. This species is described from North America and found in many European countries. The Asian collections seem to be the “missing link” in the distribution area.

Dictyonema huaorani Dal-Forno, Schmull, Lücking & Lawrey, Bryologist 117(4): 389 (2014)
Thallus lignicolous on branch, filamentous, attached to the bark in the center and forming shelves on both sides, large, about 19 × 9 cm in size, green to aquamarine fibrils resting on top of a thick, white hypothallus, extending to form a distinct white yellowish prothallus. Some parts of the thallus have reddish areas which may be a result of herbarium discoloration since red is not mentioned in the original description. Thallus in section (0.3–)0.5–0.69 mm thick, composed of a thin upper photobiont layer, (80–)100–240(–311) µm thick, and a lower medulla (forming the hypothallus), (170–)300–500 µm thick; photobiont layer composed of numerous cyanobacterial filaments, wrapped in a hyphal sheath, loosely attached to the hypothallus; medulla composed of a loose network of highly interwoven hyphae. Cyanobacterial filaments more or less horizontally orientated, composed of (7–)9(–11) μm wide and (3–)5.5(–10) µm high, blue-green cells, unbranched; heterocytes sparse to frequent, hyaline, (2–)5(–7) µm wide and (4.5–)6(–7) µm high. Hyphal sheath (2–)3.5(–5) µm wide (n = 100), hyaline, formed by densely arranged, irregular, frequently branched hyphae, mostly oriented longitudinally. Hypothallus and prothallus formed by (4–)7(–8) µm wide (n = 41), hyaline, more or less straight hyphae with mostly perpendicular branching pattern. Clamps not observed on the medullary hyphae. Hymenophore developed as corticioid patches from the underside of the thallus margins, whitish yellow; hymenophore in section (77–)103(–124) µm thick, composed of a paraplectenchymatous layer connected to loose medullary hyphae; hymenium composed of numerous, palisade-like basidioles (15.5–)18(–25) × (6.5–)7(–8) µm; basidia and basidiospores not observed.
Chemistry. K–, C–, KC–. No conclusive chemical substances detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS).
Morphologically, Dictyonema huaorani is a typical representative of Dictyonema s.str. Anatomically it also agrees with Cyphellostereum in the simple hyphal sheath around the cyanobacterial filaments and the comparatively narrow filament cell (Chaves et al. 2004; Dal-Forno et al. 2013; Yánez et al. 2012), but the molecular phylogenetic data confirm its placement in Dictyonema s.str. It most closely resembles Dictyonema ligulatum from the Paleotropics (Lücking et al. 2013), but the latter differs in having clamps and broader filaments with a puzzle-shaped hyphal sheath. Both species differ from other species of Dictyonema with shelf-like growth of the very compact thalli with an almost smooth surface (Lücking et al. 2013).

Entoloma bloxamii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. [as ‘bloxami’], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 684 (1887)
(To Be Developed)

Entoloma medianox C.F. Schwarz, Index Fungorum 220: 1 (2015)
(To Be Developed)

Entoloma subviduense (Largent) Noordel. & Co-David, Persoonia 23: 174 (2009)
(To Be Developed)

Entoloma yatesii (Murrill) Blanco-Dios, Tarrelos, Revista da Federation Galera de Micoloxia 17: 38 (2015)
(To Be Developed)

Galerina steglichii Besl, Z. Mykol. 59(2): 216 (1993)
(To Be Developed)
(Description From C.B.): Pileus (Cap): 7-13 × 2-3 mm, Brown hygrophanous cap. convex to plane. Lamellae (Gills): (10)13-15 mm, intermediate gills. adnate to decurrent. Yellowish turning yellow brown in age. Stipe (Stem): 12-23 × 0.8-2.2 mm. cylindrical. Brown to reddish brown. Spores Rusty-orange brown. Season: August through November. Habitat and Distribution: Only reported once in Germany, found in a green house. Possibly tropical climates since it was only found once in a hothouse in Germany. Growth Habit: Singularly or few in numbers in the surrounding area or in clusters. Bruising: Bruising [bluish] on the gills and cap, possible at the base.

Lepiota aeruginea Murrill, Lloydia 7(4): 305 (1945) 1944
(To Be Developed) https://archive.org/...

Lepiota citrophylloides Sathe & S.M. Kulk., Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Monograph No. 1 Agaricales (Mushrooms) of South West India (Pune): 55 (1981) 1980
(Description From "Vellinga, E.C., 2009. Nomenclatural overview of Lepiotaceous Fungi. Version 4.7.”):
=Lepiota caerulescens Peck in Bull. Torrey bot. Cl. 26: 63. 1899 (as Lepiota coerulescens). U.S.A., Ohio.
[Peck, 1899: “Pileus thin, convex, obtuse or slightly umbonate, squamulose, whitish, the squamules and the center brownish, flesh and surface of the pileus becoming blue in drying; lamellae thin, close, free, white, becoming blue in drying; stem slender, equal, brownish, annulate, the annulus membranous, persistent, externally tinged with blue when dry; spores elliptic, 7 μ long, 5 μ broad. Pileus 1.5-2 cm. broad ; stem 3-5 cm. long, 2 mm. thick. Ohio. C. G. Lloyd. The species is closely allied to Lepiota cristata, from which it is easily separated by its assuming blue tints in drying.”]

Lepiota cyanea Rick, Brotéria, sér. bot. 18(no. 2): 52 (1920)
(To Be Developed)

Lepiota cyanescens Beeli, Bull. Soc. R. Bot. Belg. 59: 109 (1927)
(To Be Developed)

Lepiota cyanozonata Longyear, Report Mich. Acad. Sci. 3: 57 (1901)
(Description From “Report of the Michigan Academy of Science”): Pileus 1-1.8 cm broad, thin except at the disc, conico-convex becoming expanded and broadly umbonate, minutely fibrillose when young, soon glabrous, margin slightly uneven, creamy or pinkish white with a narrow zone of light blue near the margin, brownish tan when dry; gills free, but close to the stem, scarcely crowded, thin, soft, whitish, becoming dingy brown on drying. Stem 2-3 cm long 2 mm thick, equal, apex smooth, minuteh’ silky, scaly below, narrowly fistulose, whitish, attached by strigose fibers; spores white, globose 6-8 microns. Growing on decaying sticks on ground in woods. July. Considerable doubt is felt as to the true generic position of this little fungus as it seems somewhat intermediate between Collybia and Lepiota. One small unexpanded specimen possessed a delicate fibrous veil similar to that found in the genus Coi’tiuarius, but only the merest remains of it could be found in mature specimens. The flesh of pileus and stem, however, appears to be distinct, and becomes brownish where bruised. Its striking feature is the delicate blue marginal zone which is suggestive of the specific name.

Lepiota subcitrophylla Hongo, J. Jap. Bot. 31(5): 148 (1956)
(To Be Developed) http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_031_144_149.pdf

Lepiota trichroma Montoya & Bandala, Mycotaxon 94: 112 (2006) 2005
(Description From “A new species and a new record of lepiota occurring in the Gulf of Mexico area”) Pileus 8-35 mm diameter., convex to plane-convex, sometimes weakly umbonate, occassionally depressed at center, at first faintly tomentose, becoming variably minutely squamulose (under lens) especially in the center, smooth or slightly rugulose, dry, pale yellow, lemon-yellow, or sulphur-yellow, caerulescent (especially on handling), with pale pinkish tinges, finally with red or orange-oxide scattered stains, squamules brownish on yellow ground, these in groups giving a dark (brown) coloration to thedisc center; margin straight, entire or somewhat eroded in age, obscurely striate, occasionally in parts bearing minute, fine fibrillose veil remnants. Lamellae close to subdistant, rounded-free or faintly adnate, at times rather seceding, subventricose, 3-4 (-5) mm broad, yellow to sulphur-yellow, caerulescent, frequently with red or oraneg-oxide stains, finally stained dark brown, edge entire, somewhat paler than the surfaces; lamellulae up to 4 different lengths. Stipe 22-70 × 1-4 mm, cylindric, straight, often slightly curved downwards, yellow, concolorous with pileus, often with a brighter sulpher-yellow color near lamellae attachment, commonly stained blue (or when handling), whilst other areas irregularly stained red or reddish-brown to orange-oxide, finally becoming brownish or dark brownish spotted; apex pruinose, fibrillose to minute squamulose downwards (under lens), squamules scattered, darker; partially fistulose, filled with whitish fibers; base concolorous, at times stained orange-oxide, more or less strigose by the presence of white to pale yellowish mycelium, this often forms moderately coarse rhizomorphs. Veil fibrillose, soon disappearing with age, occasionally as scant fibrils remaining at annular zone or rarely at pileus margin. Context yellow, hygrophanous, caerulescent, stained reddish-brown or reddish mainly in the inferior two thirds of stipe including the rhizomorphs. Odor to rotten potatoes or herbs. Taste mild. Basidiospores 6-8.5(-9) x 3-4(-4.3) um; x̄ = 7.1-7.6×3.3-3.5 um, Q=2.1-2.2, elongate, spurred on lateral view and with a dorsal depression, pale yellowish-green to hyaline, wall slightly thick, dextrinoid. Basidia 15-25 × 5-605 um, clavate, bi- or tetrasporic, thin walled, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Cheilocystidia 13.5-30 × 6-12 um, clavate, broadly clavate or more or less narrowly utriform, often somewhat ampulliform, hyaline, thin walled, numerous. Pileipellis a cutis composed of interwoven, cylindric hyphae 4-7 um broad, often ramified, clamped, at times ending in a projected or periclinally oriented claviform element, often the scales with mounds of compactly arranged clavate, broadly clavate or sphaeropedunculate pileocystidia-like elements, 7-40 × 8-25 um, 4-7 um diameter at base, some more or less disposed in chains of 2-3 subisodiamteric cells, all terminal elements with yellowish wall and with yellowish-brown contents, slightly thick walled (up to 0.5 um thick), at times with incrustations. Context hyphae 4-13 um diameter, yellowish to yellowish-brown, thin-walled, clamped. Hymenophoral trama subregular, hyphae 2.5-18 um diameter, cylindric to inflate, broad or sausage shape. Stipe trama with somewhat parallel hyphae 5-8 um diameter, thin or somewhat thick walled, yellowish in KOH, clamped. Stipitipellis a cutis of hyphae 4-8 um diameter, at times ending in a sphaeropedunculate element 19-40 × 8-12 um or a subisodiametric cell up to 30 um diameter, other hyphae with short lateral outgrowths, clamped. Clamp connections present. A yellow sap is dissolved in KOH slides. Habitat: Solitary to gregarious, at times caespitose, in small troops, on soil or among fallen leaves or grass, near Carpinus caroliniana, at 1300 m. Remarks. Lepiow trichroma is readily recognized by its yellow, caerulescent basidiomes developing pale pinkish, red or orange-oxide stains, the spurred spores, broadly clavate or ventricose cheilocystidia and pileipellis irregularly covered with subisodiametric or sphaeropedunculate terminal elements forming the scales of the pileus. The microscopic characteristics (pileipellis structure, basidiospores, cheilocystidia) in combination with color variation of the basidiomes, taxonomically separate L. trichroma from phenotypically similar taxa in Section Stenosporae (J. Lange) Kuhner (Bon 1981; Candusso & Lanzoni 1990; Vellinga & Huijser 1993). The bluing of the basidiomes is a characteristic rarely found among the species of Lepiota with spurred spores (Akers et al. 2000; Horak 1980). Lepiota subcitrophylla described from Japan (Hongo 1956) and depicted in lmazeki and Hongo (1983) iconography, superficially recalls L. trichroma. The distinctive reddish colors of the basidiomes as observed in the Mexican taxon, however were not described for Lepiota subcitrophylla (Hongo 1956; Imazeki and Hongo 1983) and there are also taxonomically important morphomicroscopical differences. A re·examination of two Japanese collections of this latter species (one of them, TMI 1458, determined by Hongo), revealed a pileipellis of a trichodermis kind, composed of a disrupted layer of elongated (narrowly claviform. subcylindric or narrowly lageniform) terminal elements 35-145 (- 160) x 6-14 (- 16) um, slightly bigger basidiospores [7-10 (-11) x 3-4 (-4.5) um, x̄ = 8.7 × 3.3 um, Q = 2.67] and lamellae edges lacking cheilocystidia. Hongo (1956) reported, however, cheilocystidia crowded, clavate to subcylindric or somewhat fusoid. 19-31 × 6-14 um and dermatocystidia cylindric to clavate, 35-70 × 9.5-16 um.

Lepiota virescens (Speg.) Morgan, J. Mycol. 12(6): 245 (1906)
Basionym: Lepiota erythrella subsp. virescens Speg. 1898
[Description From North American Species of Lepiota (Continued)]: Pileus fleshy, ovoid then campanulate and explanate, sub-umbonate; the flesh very thin, at first white, the whole plant exhibiting tints of red, green and blue when handled; the dermis radiately fibrillose, becoming rimulose-sulcate nearly to the center; the cuticle at first testaceous to umber, soon separating into minute reflexed scales. Stipe tapering upward from a clavate base, fistulous silky-fibrillose or nearly glabrous, at first white; the annulus membranaceous, subpersistent. Lamellae broad rather distant, at first white, free, sub-remote; spores elliptic- oblong, obliquely apiculate, 7-9 × 4-5 mic. uniguttulate.
Growing among old leaves in woods. W. Virginia, Lloyd; Preston, O. Pileus I-3 cm. in diameter, the stipe 3-5 cm. long and 2-3 mm. in thickness. The peculiarity of the plant is that when handled it exhibits changing tints of red, green and blue; finally when dried it takes on a permanent bluish color.

Lepiota virescens Pat., Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris 30(6): 529 (1924)
Nomenclatural comment: Nom. illegit., Art. 53.
(To Be Developed)

Leucoagaricus atroazureus J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1144 (2010)
Etymology: Named because of the dark blue reaction of basidiomata where bruised or dried.
Basidiomata (FIG. 2A). Pileus 1.6–4.5 cm diam, convex, slightly umbonate, center black-red (10C8) to brownish red (11C7–8), elsewhere with whitish to cream to grayish orange (6B3–5) ground, and covered with reddish brown (9D7–8) to dark brown (6F7–8) squamules; margin dirty white, striate in age. Context thin to moderately thick, 1–2 mm, white but becoming dark blue where bruised or dried. Lamellae free, white to cream to yellowish (2A2), crowded, lamellulae present. Stipe 2–4 cm 3 2–6 mm, silkyfibrillose or nearly glabrous, not brittle, attenuate, occasionally inflated or narrowed toward the base, fistulous, surface at first white to yellowish (2A2), becoming grayish orange (6B4–5) when mature, becoming dark blue when bruised or dried. Annulus white but becoming dark blue when dried, edge brownish red (11C7–8), fragile, superior, about 5 mm below the apex of stipe, sometimes disappearing. Odor none. Flavor not recorded.
Basidiospores (FIG. 2B) [185/9/5] (5.0–)5.5–8.0 (–9.0) 3 (3.0–)3.5–5.0(–6.0) mm (Q 5 [1.25–]1.38– 1.88[–2.00], Q 5 1.61 6 0.15), amygdaliform in side view, attenuate toward apex, ovoid in front view, without germ pore, hyaline, smooth, slightly thickwalled, dextrinoid, congophilic, metachromatic in cresyl blue, with guttulate contents. Basidia 15–23 x 7–11 mm, clavate, four-spored, rarely two-spored, hyaline. Cheilocystidia (FIG. 2C) 22–50(–65) 3 5– 15 mm, clavate to narrowly clavate, sometimes fusiform, thin-walled, hyaline, not abundant. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis (FIG. 2D) loosely arranged cutis of cylindrical hyphae; terminal elements barely differentiated, (17–)21–92(–115) 3 6–20 mm, subcylindrical, occasionally narrowly clavate or fusiform, thin-walled, with pale brown intracellular pigments and often encrusted with brown pigments. Clamp connections absent. Habitat. Solitary on the ground in tropical and subtropical forests. Known distribution. Known only from southern and southwestern China.
Notes: Leucoagaricus atroazureus is characterized by white context, clavate to narrowly clavate cheilocystidia, absence of pleurocystidia and the dark blue changes of basidiomata where bruised or dried. The colors can be observed on herbarium collections. The species is similar to L. cyanescens, L. viriditincta, L. caerulescens and L. virescens Pat. with regard to bruising and white context. However L. cyanescens differs from La. atroazureus in having larger and wider basidiospores (8–10 3 7–8 mm) (Beeli 1927), L. viriditincta has orange fibrillose squamules on the pileus and broadly clavate cheilocystidia, L. caerulescens differs by the broadly clavate cheilocystidia and fleeting bluish tint and L. virescens Pat. has brown and pulverulent squamules on pileus (Patouillard 1924). Apart from the above, L. subcitrophylla, L. trichroma, La. sulphurellus, La. viridiflavoides and La. viridiflavus also exhibit bluish green bruising, but these all have yellow or yellowish context. The new species La. flavovirens differs from La atroazureus by its yellow or yellowish context and fusiform cheilocystidia with a short apical appendage.

Leucoagaricus coerulescens (Peck) J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu [as ‘caerulescens’] 2010
Pileus 1.5-2.0 cm diam, convex, obtuse to slightly umbonate, center brownish, elsewhere with whitish ground, and covered with brownish squamules. Context thin, whitish. Lamellae free, white, crowded; lamellulae present. Stipe 3.0-5.0 cm x 2-3 mm, subclavate, hollow, glabrous, brownish.
Basidiospores (fig. 4A) [20/1/1] (7.0-)7.5-9.5 (-10.0) x 4.0-5.0 µm (Q = 1.56-2.00, Q = 1.84 ± 0.13), amygdaliform in side view, attenuate toward apex, ovoid in front view, without germ pore, hyaline, smooth, slightly thick-walled, dextrinoid, congophilic, metachromatic in cresyl blue. Basidia 16-22 × 7-12 µm, clavate, four-spored, hyaline. Cheilocystidia (fig. 4B) 21.5-39 × 10-20 µm, clavate to broadly clavate, rarely narrowed at the apex, thin-walled, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis (fig. 4C) a loosely arranged cutis of cylindrical hyphae; terminal elements suberect, sometimes differentiated, 24-51 (-61) x 6-11 µm, subcylindrical to narrowly clavate, thin-walled, with pale brown intracellular pigments, and often encrusted with brown pigments at base. Clamp connections absent.
Materials examined: USA: Ohio. C.G. Lloyd (NYS, holotype).
Distribution. – Eastern North America.
Leucoagaricus caerulescens is characterized by white context, clavate to broadly clavate cheilocystidia and the bluish green change of basidiomata when dried (Peck 1899, Morgan 1906), but the blue tint did not persist in herbarium collections.
Leucoagaricus caerulescens originally was described as L. coerulescens [sic] by Peck (1899). Morgan (1906) considered L. erythrella e. (subsp.) virescens Speg. with L. coerulescens [sic] as conspecific and used the name L. virescens (Speg.) Morgan for the species. Based on the type specimen of L. coerulescens and literature reviews of L. virescens, we consider the two specimens as conspecific. L. caerulescens (1899) should have priority over L. virescens (1906), according to nomenclatural priority (Mcneill et al. 2006). In addition we propose to transfer the species from the genus Lepiota to Leucoagaricus based on the morphological features.
Vellinga Note: [Lepiota virescens is considered synonymous by Liang et al., 2010; who studied the type of L. caerulescens].

Leucoagaricus flavovirens J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1143 (2010)
Etymology. Named because of greenish yellow basidiomata. Basidiomata.
Pileus 1–3 cm diam, when young campanulate, expanding to plano-convex to applanate, sometimes center obtusely umbonate; surface dark gray (4F1) to blackish (1F1) at the center, elsewhere pale yellow (1B4) but becoming dark bluish green (24A7–8) when dried, with brownish gray (1E2), gray (4C1) to purplish gray (13D2–3) or grayish green (28C3–4) appressed to radially fibrillose squamules, sometimes in some collections with minute brownish red (11C7–8) squamules; margin nonstriate. Context cream to yellowish or yellow, turning bluish green where bruised, only about 0.3 mm thick. Lamellae free, crowded, greenish yellow (1A7–8), greenish yellow to deep green, bruising bluish green, lamellulae present. Stipe 2– 3.4 cm 3 2–3 mm, subcylindrical, attenuate, slightly curved at the base, smooth, hollow, greenish yellow but turning bluish green where handled. Annulus present, superior, membranous, greenish yellow, bruising bluish green, often disappearing. Odor none. Flavor not recorded.
Basidiospores (FIG. 1B) [104/4/4] (4.5–)5.0–7.0 (–7.5) 3 (3.0–)3.5–4.5(–5.0) mm (Q 5 [1.22–]1.33– 1.75[–1.88], Q 5 1.56 6 0.12), ellipsoid to subamygdaliform with slightly straight adaxial side in side view, attenuate, without suprahilar depression and germ pore, ellipsoid to ovoid in front view, hyaline, smooth, slightly thick-walled, strongly dextrinoid, congophilic, metachromatic in cresyl blue, with guttulate contents. Basidia 13–20 3 7–11 mm, clavate, four-spored, rarely two-spored, hyaline, sterigmata short and thin. Cheilocystidia (FIG. 1C) (21–)24–45(–48) 3 (6–)8– 15(–17) mm, fusiform with a short apical appendage; apical appendage submoniliform or subcylindrical, attenuate, often narrowed, occasionally septate; walls smooth, thin, hyaline in KOH, congophilic. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis (FIG. 1D) a loosely arranged cutis of frequently septate cylindrical hyphae, occasionally lower part of the hyphae encrusted with brown pigments; terminal elements barely differentiated, 20–76 3 5–11 mm, subcylindrical, thin-walled, with pale yellow intracellular pigments. Clamp connections absent.
Habitat. Solitary on the ground in tropical rainforest or other forests in tropical regions.
Known distribution. Known only from tropical China.
Notes. Leucoagaricus flavovirens is characterized by the greenish yellowish context, fusiform cheilocystidia with a short apical appendage, the absence of pleurocystidia, and the bluish green change of basidiomata where bruised or when dried.

Leucoagaricus houaynhangensis Sysouphanthong, Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2018; 45(3)
Basidiomata light green to yellowish-green and turning blue when dried, umbonate to plano-convex pileus covered with dark grey to black granulose to squamules and with light green appendiculate margin, free and light green to yellowish-green lamellae, subcylindrical and yellowish-green stipe with light green fibrillose remnants, oblong to ovoid basidiospore with a germ pore, 5.8-7.2 × 3.8-5 μm, clavate to utriform cheilocystidia with short to long appendages, 18-32 × 8-15 μm, a hymenodermal pileus covering made up of some cylindrical elements, a cutis stipe covering made up of hyaline hyphae and cylindrical elements, absence of clamp-connections in all tissues. Pileus 15-35 mm diam, umbonate, explanding via campanulate to applanate to plano-convex, with low umbo, with straight margin; when young granulose, dark grey to black, soon breaking up into concolourous squamules to squamules fibrillose around granulose umbo toward margin, on light green to yellowish-green background, attached with light green appendiculate margin, fringed and lamellae exceeding when mature. Lamellae free, broadly ventricose, light green to yellowish-green, slightly crowded, with 5 lamellulae series. Stipe 23-40 × 3-8.5 mm, subcylindrical or wider at base zone and slightly tapering to apex, with green to yellowish-green fibrillosebackground. Annulus membranous, rarely present or often fragile, with green to yellowish-green fibrillose remnants at middle to upper part of stipe. Context inpileus 2.0-3.0 mm wide, concolourous with surface; in stipe hollow, concolourous with surface. Odor and taste not observed. Spore print white.
Basidiospores [75, 3, 3] l × w= 5.8-7.2 ×3.8-5 μm, avl × w= 6.5 × 4.3 μm, Q = 1.4-1.7, Qav= 1.5, in side-view oblong or ovoid, in frontal view ovoid, oblong, thick-walled, hyaline, with a germ pore, dextrinoid, cogophilous, cyanophilous, metachromatic. Basidia 12-15 × 6-8 μm,clavate, 4-spored, hyaline. Lamella edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 18-32 × 8-15 μm, clavate to utriform, with short to long appendages (l × w = 5-20 × 2.5-3.5 μm), Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus covering a hymenoderm madeup of some layers of cylindrical elements, rarely with narrowly clavate elements,23-47 × 4-7 μm, hyaline to pale brown-walled, under layer with hyaline hyphae, cylindrical, 2.5-6.5 μm wide. Stipe covering a cutis madeup of cylindrical elements, 1-2.5 μm wide, hyaline, with cylindrical hyphae in lower layer, 1-4 μm wide, hyaline. Clamp-connections absent in all tissues. Habitat and distribution: solitary, saprotrophic, on humus soil; widespread in deciduous forests of Houat Yang Preserved Forest, Xaythany District, Vienttianr Capital, Lao PDR.

Leucoagaricus sulphurellus (Pegler) B.P. Akers, in Akers, Angels & Kimbrough, Mycotaxon 76: 48 (2000)
Pileus (8-)13-21 mm wide, campanulate then plane, sulphur yellow (M&P 10J1 “Sulphur Y, Citrus) with small greyish brown (M&P 16A4 “Rose Taupe”) squamules, with margin indistinctly sulcate. Lamellae free, membranous, close, sulphur yellow (M&P 10J1 “Sulphur Y, Citrus), discolouring greenish blue when bruised. Stipe 28-40×2.5-3.5 mm, central, cylindrical, sometimes attenuate at base, glabrous, smooth, concolorous with pileus and lamellae. Annulus small and fragile, concolorous with stipe. Context thin, fleshy. Basidiospores 6.2-7.2×3.7-5 μ m, on average 6.6×4.3μ m, Q= (1.39-)1.5-1.76(-1.81), ellipsoid in side view, dextrinoid, metachromatic, smooth, with small germ pore, thick-walled, hyaline. Basidia 15-18× 7-10 μm, clavate, with 4 sterigmata. Pleurocystidia 30-50(-62)×8-12(-15) μ m, fusoid-mucronate, thin- walled, hyaline. Cheilocystidia 23-37×8-12 μ m, inflated- clavate to occasionally fusoid, with sub mucronate to mucronate apex, thin-walled, hyaline. Pileipellis as cutis, with terminal elements (13-)15-35(-42)×5-10 μ m, cylindrical to clavate. Hymenophoral trama regular. Clamp-connections absent.
Habitat: solitary on soil in tropical forest.
Material examined: BRAZIL. Pernambuco: Recife, Mata de Dois Irmãos, 4/II/2004, L. Ryvarden & F. Wartchow s.n. (URM 78662, HCB 18237); Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Complexo do Gurjaú (Mata do Café), 21/VI/2004, F. Wartchow 10/2004 (URM 78677).
Distribution:LesserAntilles(Pegler1983),Bolivia (Moreno-Arroyo et al. 2001), Colombia (Vasco- Palacios et al. 2005). Brazil: São Paulo (Pegler 1997). L. sulphurellus is reported for the first time in Pernambuco.
Remarks: This species is characterized by the sulphur yellow basidioma, the lamellae discolouring when bruising, size of the spores and the presence of pleurocystidia (Pegler 1983). Moreno-Arroyo et al. (2001) did not report pleurocystidia in “Leucocoprinus cf. sulphurellus” from Bolivia, which leaves open to question their assignment to L. sulphurellus. The presence of pleurocystidia in Leucoagaricus has also been reported in L. viridiflavoides B.P. Akers from North America (Akers et al. 2000), L. americanus (Peck) Vellinga and L. barssii (Zeller) Vellinga from Europe and North America (Vellinga 2000). L. pleurocystidiatus Migliozzi & Testoni (2000) is probably a synonym of L. barssii (Vellinga personal correspondence).

Leucoagaricus viriditinctus (Berk. & Broome) J.F. Liang, Zhu L. Yang & J. Xu, Mycologia 102(5): 1146 (2010)
=Agaricus viriditinctus Berk. & Broome, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11(no. 56): 503 (1871)
=Lepiota viriditincta (Berk. & Broome) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 59 (1887)
=Mastocephalus viriditinctus (Berk. & Broome) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 2: 860 (1891)
Basidiomata small. Pileus 1–3.5 cm diam, when young campanulate, expanding to plano-convex to applanate, center with low umbonate and dark reddish brown to dark brown, elsewhere with whitish todirty whiteground, and covered with pale brown, reddish brown to dark brown squamules; striate or not. Context thin, white but pale blue to dark blue when bruised or dried. Lamellae free, white, moderate to crowded; lamellulae present. Stipe 1.5–6.5 cm 3 1–4 mm, subcylindrical or attenuate, occasionally inflated at base, hollow, surface at first white, dark blue when handled. Annulus membranous, disappearing, white but dark blue when dried. Flavor sour (from the original description of L0627034).
Basidiospores (FIG. 3A) [82/4/4] (6.5–)7.0–8.5 3 4.0–5.0 mm (Q 5 [1.50–]1.56–2.00[–2.13], Q 5 1.74 6 0.14), amygdaliform in side view, attenuate toward the apex, ovoid in front view, without germ pore, hyaline, smooth, slightly thick-walled, dextrinoid, congophilic, metachromatic in cresyl blue, with guttulate contents. Basidia 16–32 3 5–13 mm, clavate, four-spored, rarely two-spored, hyaline. Cheilocystidia (FIG. 3B) 10–50 3 7.5–21 mm, broadly clavate to pyriform, sometimes sphaeropedunculate, rarely clavate, thin-walled, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis (FIG. 3C) a loosely arranged cutis of cylindrical hyphae; terminal elements often differentiated, 16– 99(–136) 3 4–20(–25) mm, subcylindrical, occasionally narrowly clavate, thin-walled, with pale brown intracellular pigments, and often encrusted with brown pigments. Clamp connections absent.
Distribution. Sri Lanka (Pegler 1986), Indonesia (Vellinga 2003a), India (Manimohan et al. 1988) and China.
Notes: Leucoagaricus viriditinctus is characterized by white context, broadly clavate to pyriform cheilocystidia, and persistent dark blue changes of basidiomata when bruised or dried. Leucoagaricus viriditinctus originally was described as Agaricus viriditinctus by Berkeley and Broome (1871) and then transferred to the genus Lepiota by Saccardo (1887). Pegler (1986) studied the type specimens of L. viriditincta and L. pyrocephala (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. and combined them as L. viriditincta. Most morphological features were similar between the type specimens of L. pyrocephala and L. viriditincta. However cheilocystidia were broadly clavate to pyriform in the type specimen of L. pyrocephala but could not be found in L. viriditincta. Manimohan et al. (1988) and Kumar and Manimohan (2009a) reported L. viriditincta from southern India yet with different sizes of basidiospores (5.0–7.0 3 3.5–4.0 mm vs. 7.0–10.0 3 4.0–5.0 mm). Based on morphological traits and the molecular phylogenetic analyses (FIGS. 3, 5), we transfer L. viriditincta to genus Leucoagaricus.

Leucocoprinus viridiflavoides (B.P. Akers & Angels) E. Ludw., Pilzkompendium (Eching) 3: 545 (2012)
=Basionym: Leucoagaricus viridiflavoides B.P. Akers & Angels, in Akers, Angels & Kimbrough, (2000)
(Description From Mycotaxon 76): Macromorphological features. Pileus 1.6-3.5 cm broad, convex to nearly plane. obtusely umbonate, margin non-striate to occasionally minutely striate, often splitting radially almost to the disc, occasionally appendiculate, flesh moderately thick and firm; cuticle almost smooth to minutely appressed fibrillose-granulose, subviscid when moist, dull pinkish brown to dull sooty brown to dull violaceous brown to greenish brown to gray to almost black, intact at the disc, elsewhere thinning and becoming paler with expansion of the pileus, or rarely disrupting concentrically into squamules. exposing sulfur yellow context beneath, cuticle and context alike turning deep bluish-green upon handling, and drying a greenish-gray or yellowish-greenish gray. Lamellae free, broad, close to subdistant, pale sulfur yellow, bruising deep bluish-green where touched, trama turning pale dull pink when cut, drying yellow with blue-green-gray to yellow-green-gray edges, lamellulae present, few. Stipe 1.8-4.5 cm long, equal to subequal, up to 3 mm wide, sulfur yellow turning deep bluish-green where handled, glabrous, hollow, base occasionally minutely granulose-scaly in young specimens; partial veil present, superior, membranous, sulfur yellow, leaving marginal remnants and/or poorly formed annulus, occasionally evanescent. Odor mild, pleasant. Taste not sampled. Spore print pale yellow.
Basidiospores 5.3-11(-13) x 3.4- 5 . 1(-6) ~m (Q = 1. 81): ellipsoidal to ovoid to amygdaliform to areniform (“peanut-shaped”), smooth. Hilar appendix prominent, wall thick (0.5 um). Germ pore indistinct to conspicuous with apex sometimes truncate as viewed in Melzer’s reagent; hyaline in KOH, weakly to moderately dextrinoid (medium rusty orange to paler with yellow perispore in Melzer’s reagenl), metachromatic endosporium pale reddish violet in cresyl blue, pore tract not metachromatic). Basidia 14.2-22 × 5.5-8 um: clavate, tetrasterigmate; basidioles 12-16 × 5-8.5 um, clavate; all hymenial elements hyaline in KOH. Cheilocystidia 29-51 × 7-13.2 um, abundant, clavate to slightly ventricose or more often ventricose-rostrate with a well-developed apical appendage: apical appendage subcapitate, cylindrical or more often submoniliform with a globose capitellum: wall smooth, thin: pale ripe olive in water, hyaline in KOH. Pleurocystidia 27.5-36 × 6.2-18 um, scattered, narrowly to stoutly clavate with apical appendage papillate to articulated, short-rostrate; walls smooth, thin; hyaline in KOH. Pileipellis of filamentous hyphae, occasionally branching and interweaving, septate to articulated, mostly recumbent but with some short, variably ascending branches; elements 18-55 × 2.5-13 um subcylindric or “sausage-shaped” to slightly ventricose. terminal elements not differentiated; walls smooth, hyaline in KOH, slightly yellow in Melzer’s reagent; vacuolar pigment pale yellow brown in KOH with dark olive granules or vesicles present as viewed in Melzer’s reagent; oleiferous hyphae present in trama below pileipellis. with content hyaline in KOH, golden in Melzer’s reagent. Clamp connections absent.

Leucocoprinus viridiflavus (Petch) E. Ludw., Pilzkompendium (Eching) 3: 554 (2012)
=Lepiota viridiflava Petch, Ann. R. bot. Gdns Peradeniya 6(3): 195 (1917)
=Leucoagaricus viridiflavus (Petch) T.K.A. Kumar & Manim., Mycotaxon 108: 399 (2009)

Massospora levispora R.S. Soper, Can. J. Bot. 41: 875 (1963)
(To Be Developed)

Massospora platypediae R.S. Soper [as ‘platypedia’], Mycotaxon 1(1): 23 (1974)
(To Be Developed)

Omphalotus olivascens H.E. Bigelow, O.K. Mill. & Thiers, Mycotaxon 3(3): 363 (1976)
(Description From “A New Species Of Omphalotus”) Pileus 4.5-24 cm broad, convex with an inrolled and incurved margin at first, becoming broadly convex to plane, broadly depressed in larger pilei, margin irregular in age to broadly undulate, lobed or incised, arched or recurved at times, sometimes short striate, surface moist, glabrous or sometimes radiate with innate fibrils, smooth or rugose, occasionally diffracted scaly on disc or with watery spots, dull orange (nearest “orange” ) or brownish-orange, disc tinged olive at times ( “olive lake,” “dull citrine”) and generally olivaceous in age; context thin to rather thick (up to 2 cm thick on disc in largest caps), watery, pliant, rather tough, olivaceous when young, dull orange then olivaceous when expanded. Cap surface is dark vinaceous on contact with 3% KOH and gray with Feso4. Odor not distinctive. Taste mild. Lamellae long decurrent and also often with decurrent ridges, narrow near pileus margin to broad near stipe (up to 15 mm), close at pileus margin to distant on stipe, intervenose and forked at times, olive mottled with honey yellow when young, becoming somewhat more yellow-orange than pileus (near a dull “capucine yellow”) but olivaceous tint usually present. Luminescent. Stipe 4-22 cm long, apex 0.7- 8 cm thick, tapering downward to a point (up to 2 cm in largest specimens), sometimes fused at base, compressed at times, solid (concolorous with surface within), surface uneven, glabrous or somewhat longitudinally fibrillose, olive to olive-yellow or dull sulphur-yellow, rusty brownish stained in age.
Spores (6.5-) 7-8 (-8.5) x (5-) 6- 6.5 (-7.5) um, globose or subglobose or broadly elliptic, smooth, not amyloid, deposit cream colored ( "cream color, “cream buff”). Basidia 36-50 x (5.5-) 7- 8 (-10) um 4-spored, some basidia and basidioles with yellow refractive globules, hymenium yellowish in mass in KOH, pseudocystidia occasionally present and numerous on some lamellae, 25-46 × 5-8 um lageniform, ventricose-rostrate to irregular in shape (Pig. 3), thin-walled, hyaline and usually shorter than the basidia; Pileus cutts of cylindric hyphae 1.5- 8 um in diam., thin or thickened walls, some with incrustations, in 3% KOH the incrustations, walls and oleiferous hyphae are yellow (subsurface layer with greatest concentration of pigment); context yellowish or nearly hyaline, hyphae cylindric or slightly inflated, (3-) 5-12 (-17) um diam, walls thin or thickened, rarely finely encrusted; yellow oleiferous hyphae present. Hymenophoral trama of undulate-subparallel hyphae, hyphae cylindric, 2.5-7.5 um diam, hyaline except for yellow oleiferous hyphae (tissue paler than hymenium). Clamp connections present.
Habit, habitat and distribution. Caespitose. Usually on stump or base of stump, occasionally on buried wood (recorded on wood of Quercus agrifolia, Arctostaphylos (manzanita), Cercis canadensis (red bud), and live Lithocarpus densiflorus (tan bark oak). October to February. California.
In the field, 0. olivascens is distinguished from other species of Omphalotus by the duller orange to yellow-orange colors which have distinctive olive overtones or stains. Numerous observations on the eastern Omphalotus (Clitocybe) illudens and southern Omphalotus (Monadelphus) subilludens, and reports in the literature on the European 0. olearius do not mention any olive colors or stains. The color difference is maintained in herbarium material, 0. olivascens dries much darker than any collections of the other three species. Usually specimens of 0. olivascens are more robust and tougher than the others, although sometimes the eastern C. illudens may have dimensions as large. The microscopic characters of 0. olivascens are similar in many respects to the other species of Omphalotus, although the presence of encrusted pigments in 0. olivascens seems unique at present. Spore measurements usually are larger for 0. olivascens when taken from deposits, but some specimens have some smaller spores (5-7 um) which lead to ranges which overlap with those of the other species. This is a confusing aspect which requires further study. The cream spore print of 0. olivascens is not a useful distinguishing character as cream spore prints are known for both 0. illudens and 0. olearius, although some collections have pure white deposits. Cystidia and pseudocystidia can be found in all species if the specimens are fairly young and a sufficient number of lamellae are studied. Likewise, yellow oleiferous hyphae and yellow refractive globules in some basidia seem to be present in all taxa.

Pholiotina smithii (Watling) Enderle, in Enderle & Hübner, Z. Mykol. 65(1): 16 (1999)
=Pholiotina smithii (Watling) Enderle, in Bon, Docums Mycol. 21(no. 84): 76 (1992)
=Galera cyanopes Kauffman, Publications Mich. geol. biol. Surv., Biol. Ser. 5 26: 500 (1918)
=Conocybe smithii Watling, Lloydia 30(2): 152 (1967)
(Description From PMOTW): Cap 0.3-(1.3) cm broad. Obtusely conic, expanding to nearly plane with a distinct pronounced umbo. Margin transluscent-striate most of the way to the disc when moist. Ochraceous tawny to cinnamon brown, hygrophanous, becoming pale pinkish yellow in drying. Gills: Adnate to adnexed, soon seceding, crowded to subdistant, narrow to moderately broad. Pale grayish yellow at first, becoming rusty cinnamon brown at maturity. Stem: 10-50 (70) mm long by .75-1 (1.5) mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged at the base, fragile. Whitish, becoming slightly pallid yellowish brown, more grayish at the base. Surface covered with fine fibrils at first but soon smooth overall. Partial veil thin to absent.
Microscopic Features: Spores rusty brown in deposity, (6.5)7-9 by 4-4.5 (5) um. Basidia 4-spored. Pleurocystida absent. Cheilocystidia 20-40 by 9-15 um.
Habit, Habitat And Distribution: Scattered to numerous in moss in and about sphagnum bogs, and in damp wet places. Reported from Washington, Oregon, and Michigan, probably more widely distributed. Not known from Europe.
Comments: Probably active, given the bluing reaction, and containing up to .80% baeocystin (Repke et al. 1977). The geographical range of this species is likely to be much more extensive than the literature presently indicates. This species can be found in moss areas of wet fields. Visually, this species is hard to distinguish from Conocybe cyanopus. Microscopically, these two taxa can be separated by spore size.

Below: An unidentified, bluing mushroom from Carrasco National Park, Bolivia

Continue To Part 2 Here: https://mushroomobserver.org/...



Comments

Add Comment
Done
By: Image Sharer (image sharer)
2019-05-01 05:54:53 PDT (-0700)

Adjoined!

this observation should be added
By: Pyrolight8
2019-04-30 19:24:27 PDT (-0700)

Created: 2019-04-08 15:56:58 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2019-12-08 08:32:07 PST (-0800)
Show Log