Psilocybin Fungi Growing Naturally In New Zealand
▴ (To Be Developed) ▴
This English-speaking nation is located east of Australia. New Zealand’s average rainfall is high, and evenly spread throughout the year. It is possible that this nation naturally produces mind-manifesting fungi every month of the year.
Google Maps: https://goo.gl/maps/P88bKjhQxcEmN7PJA
The Genus Gymnopilus
This locality may eventually reveal multiple species in the genus Gymnopilus which produce Psilocybin. Gymnopilus species grow on wood (wood chip trails, fallen logs/branches, tree stumps, clear-cut debris, logging road wood debris, and at the bases of living trees). Extra (advanced) caution should be applied when studying this genus due to similar looking species in the poisonous genera Galerina and Cortinarius, as well as some species in the genera Tricholomopsis and Pholiota. More photographs are needed to understand the current biodiversity emerging from this country.
The Genus Panaeolopsis
This is a secotioid genus that is closely related to the genus Panaeolus. These mushrooms have very similar odor and texture to Panaeolus and are widely distributed in lawns. Some collections have brown gills and resemble Panaeolus foenisecii. Others have black gills and slight bluing on the stem base and resemble Panaeolus cinctulus.
The Genus Panaeolus
This locality may have more Panaeolus species waiting to be found in fertilized garden soils, fertilized lawns (especially newly laid lawns with sod), newly developed neighborhoods, and in fields with animal dung. This includes cow-grazing fields, horse stables and horse racing courses, equestrian trails, and possibly other large animal localities – like sites known for elk, buffalo, sheep, and/or elephants. Psychoactive species in the genus Panaeolus are known to have a dark black spore print, usually exhibit mottled gills, and will lack an annulus (or annular zone). They rarely stain blue upon damage/touch, and rarely possess blue coloration, with the exception of Panaeolus cyanescens. Occassionally, Panaeolus cyanescens [and possibly 1 to 2 other species] can exhibit a gold hue on the stipe and/or pileus, complicating its identification slightly when contrasted with Psilocybe cubensis.
Ola’h, G.M. (1969) Le genre Panaeolus: Essai taxinomique et physiologique
The Genus Psilocybe
This locality may possess more species in the genus Psilocybe than what’s listed below. This diverse genus exhibits species capable of growing from wood, soil, dung, and intermediate substrates (including habitats with additional substrata like herbaceous stems, humus, mosses, clay, and diverse refuse materials). They are particularly common in “beauty bark,” hardwood chip trails, clay-rich soils, mulch, and upon cow dung. If you or someone you know locates a collection, please thoroughly photograph the species for Mushroom Observer, then dry it out completely, and save it (properly) for microscopy and DNA sequencing. Note that some species in the genus Psilocybe resemble members of the genus Deconica. To learn more in English about the genus Psilocybe, please see Psilocybin Mushrooms Of The World by Mycologist Paul Stamets.
Psilocybe makarorae (On rotten Nothofagus wood) *Image Needed!
Psilocybe “subsecotioides” (Provisional Name)
No Observations Available On Mushroom Observer Yet
Psilocybe weraroa var. subsecotioides (Provisional Name)
The Genus Pluteus
The genus Pluteus requires more amplified attention by mycologists in this locality. It is possible that more Psilocybin-producing species are currently growing on fallen branches, decaying logs, tree stumps, tree bases, logging roads, and on clear-cut debris in the forests. Excellent photography is now needed throughout this locality. Please also see: https://mushroomobserver.org/...
(To Be Developed)
It is absolutely possible that other genera and species producing Psilocybin, Psilocin, Cyanescin (Baeocystin), Nor-Cyanescin (Nor-Baeocystin), and Aeruginascin are naturally growing in this nation. Some or all of them may also be producing novel MAOIs. Strong caution is advised due to potentially poisonous species in some of these genera. Please note that these (and related) collections are quite difficult to identify – even among confident experts: Panaeolopsis, Pholiotina, Conocybe, Oudemansiella, Inosperma, Mycena, Galerina, and Inocybe.
Question: Who can perform DNA sequencing, chemosystematics, and digital microscopy in this nation for collections of species in Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Panaeolopsis, Pholiotina, Psilocybe, Pluteus, Oudemansiella, Conocybe, Inosperma, Mycena, Galerina, and Inocybe?
Note: Mushroom Observer needs more high definition photography for the species mentioned above. Please thoroughly capture all taxonomic characters with close-up photography. Please share this link with friends and colleagues.
Be cautious (prudent). Be wise. Be mindful. Be clean. Let’s be kind, too.
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Potential Microscope Suppliers
Note: Please comment on this list so we can improve it with greater precision. Any corrections – eloquently advised – are most welcome. Thank you!
Can you please send me the relevant links to those observations for confirmation?
I don’t want to get ahead of myself with what I will now write, but this needs to be addressed:
When addressing potentially secotioid species (or collections), it is imperative that the following matters are boldly considered and questioned…
1. Is this truly a secotioid collection, or are there other causes requiring investigation such as weather, substrate, chemical matters, genetic drift, not allowing enough time for the pilei to expand and open, etc.
2. When we look at a specific DNA sequence, we are only getting a small portion of genetic code to contrast with. When we are in confusion, a begrudging but important full/complete entire genome sequence should be sought out. This is the inevitable future of DNA sequencing as far as I can tell. What we are calling a Panaeolopsis species today may be called a Panaeolus species in the not-so-distant future. What we are calling Psilocybe allenii today may be called Psilocybe cyanescens in the future. Maybe not, but maybe.
3. Are these forms (or species) re-produceable in mating studies?
4. How many faithful sequences do we have to contrast? How many localities have we truly explored?
This is just food-for-thought as you continue to explore this interesting topic. Thank you for adding that link. If you find any more like that, I’d like to go over them as well. Cheers!
We have more semi secotioid species from section Cyanescens. cyanescens var. subsecotioides is being used for the other wood chip one because DNA says it is Psilocybe cyanescens. It looks slightly different.
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1353975 at the end of this observation is a good phylogenetic tree for NZ