Psilocybin Fungi Of Thailand
This Thai-speaking nation borders Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, and Myanmar. You will find some English-speaking folks here, too. The rainy season in the north is between June and October. Between October and December, it’s the southeastern coast and Gulf of Thailand that receive most of the rain.
(Grows on soil)
Diagnosis:—a reddish brown patch at pileus surface center.
Description: Pileus 0.6–0.8cm in height, 1.6–2.1cm in diameter, hemispherical to campanulate; surface dry, glabrous, with a reddish brown (9E7) patch at center; scales present; margin greyish white (1B1) and not striate. Context 1.5–3mm thick, readily bruising bluish. Lamellae adnate, moderately crowded, 3 tiers, thin, mottled dark grey (1F1), with white (1A1) serrate margin. Stipe 4.2–5.1 cm in height, 1.5–2.5mm thick, cylindrical curved, hollow, surface striate glabrous, annulus absent, grey (1B1) or greyish orange (6B4) toward the apex, light brown (7D6) to brown (7E5) overall, with white (1A1) basal mycelium. Spore print black, not bleaching in concentrated sulphuric acid. Basidiospores 8.8–11.4 × 6.3–9.0 μm, average 9.8 × 7.6 μm (n=20) in frontal view, average 8.6 × 4.9 μm (n=20) in side view, average 8.2 × 5.5 μm (n=20) in top view, QF = 1.30, QS = 1.80, QT = 1.52, non-transparent, limoniform in frontal view, ellipsoid in side view, smooth, thick-walled, brown (5F6). Basidia 10.5–24.3 × 8.4–13.7 μm (n=20), broadly clavate to obovoid, 4-spored, unclamped. Cheilocystidia 14.4–25.4 × 7.5–10 μm (n=10), utriform to broadly utriform, never bifid, hyaline, thin-walled. Hymenophoral trama subregular. Pleurocystidia not seen. Pileipellis an intricate trichoderm. Pileocystidia 54.1–132 × 3.8–16.7 μm (n=10), narrowly utriform, few bifid. Stipitipellis a interrupted hymeniderm. Caulocystidia 24.6–42.7 × 5.9–10.7 μm (n=10), narrowly utriform, never bifid, hyaline, thin-walled. Clamp connections present but inconspicuous in all tissues.
Habitat and distribution: gregarious on a lawn rich in organic matter, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Notes:—Pleurocystidia were not seen under the microscope, scales present at the pileus center, margin greyish white and not striate (Figure 1 a,b). Panaeolus bisporus (Malençon & Bertault) Ew. Gerhardt (1996: 41) and Panaeolus cyanescens (Berk & Broome) Sacc (1887: 1123) have the most similar macro- and micro-morphological characteristics to Panaeolus axfordii (Table 2) however P. bisporus is 2-spored while P. axfordii is 4-spored; basidiospores of P. cyanescens are bigger than those of P. axfordii. P. bisporus and P. cyanescens belong to subgenus Copelandia Bres (1912: 51). The subgenus Copelandia comprises P. bisporus, P. cyanescens, P. cambodginiensis, and other possible species, according to phylogenetic analysis from recent research (Ma 2014), and the subgenus Copelandia is a well-supported clade within the genus Panaeolus, which is accordance with previous studies (Gerhardt 1996, Wartchow et al. 2010, Silva-Filho et al. 2018). According to the results of our study, P. axfordii is a distinct new species that belongs to the subgenus Copelandia.
Habitat and Ecology: Cespitose, on rotting elephant dung, tropical montane broadleaf forest, 850 m alt.
Psilocybe thaiaerugineomaculans Images Needed
◭ Differs from Psilocybe aerugineomaculans in producing pyriform yellowish brown pseudocystidia from the hymenophoral trama.
Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai Prov., Chiang Mai University Park, 18°48ʹN 98°53ʹE, elevation 300 m, July 27 2010, Karunarathna NTS-121 (holotype MFLU-10-0851; isotype XAL.
Etymology: The epithet refers to Thailand and to the similar species P. aerugineo-maculans.
Pileus 10–20 mm diam., conic to subumbonate, finally convex, smooth, glabrous, margin glabrous, striate when dry, hygrophanous, dark reddish brown to pale yellowish brown to whitish, bluing, finally blackish chocolate when dry. Lamellae broadly adnate to subadnexed, brownish violaceous to chocolate-brown, with white edges. Stipe 25–45 × (2–)3–4 mm, equal, subbulbous, smooth above, sub-floccose below, base fibrillose, pale yellowish brown to white or brownish black to reddish brown, hollow to stuffed, with whitish conspicuous mycelium at the base. Annulus membranous, white to off white, thick, persistent. Context white to pale rose, bluing upon exposure. Odor & taste not checked, in herbarium specimens none, but taste strongly pungent after some minutes.
Spore print unknown.
Basidiospores 9–12 × 7–8(–9) × 5.5–7 μm, subrhomboid or subhexagonal in face-view, subellipsoid in side-view, thick-walled, wall 1–1.5 μ thick, yellowish brown, with a slightly truncate germ pore at the apex and a short, acute apiculus at the base. Basidia 21–31(–36) × (6–)7–10 μm, 4-spored, hyaline, cylindric-vesiculose to subclaviform, the sterigmata up to 6 μm long. Pleurocystidia (11–)14–22(–24) × 5–11(–13) μm, hyaline, thin-walled, more or less common, ventricose-mucronate to sub-rostrate or fusiform- globose or obovate. Pseudocystidia (25–)26–33(–35) × 11–16 μm, pyriform, content oily, yellowish brown, growing from the hymenophoral trama. Cheilocystidia 15–20 × (5–)6–8(–10) μm, hyaline, ventricose-mucronate to sub-rostrate or sublageniform, some fusiform or sub-ovate, rarely irregularly branched. Subhymenium subcellular, hyaline to yellowish pale, the elements 2–9 μm wide, thick-walled. hymenophoral trama regular, with hyphae 2–23 μm wide, hyaline, rarely pale yellowish, thin- to thick-walled. Pileipellis an ixocutis, 21–30 μm thick, with hyaline hyphae, 2–6 μm wide. Context with hyaline or some yellowish hyphae, 2–12 μm wide. Clamp connections present.
Habit, habitat and distribution — Solitary or gregarious at 300 m on soil with rotting cow dung, in an open grassland below the shadow of trees. Known only from the type locality.
Psilocybe thaicordispora Images Needed
Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai Prov., approximately 100 km from Chiang Mai, near Huai Nam Dang National Park, (19°16ʹN 98°16ʹE), elevation 1500 m, rainforest dominated by Pinus kesiya, July 12, 2010; Guzmán 38349 (holotype MFLU-10-0804, isotype XAL).
Etymology: The epithet refers to Thailand and to the sect. Cordisporae.
Pileus 10–30 mm diam., conic to subcampanulate, finally convex or subconcave- umbonate, sometimes irregularly lobulate, sub-hygrophanous, yellowish brown to brownish orange, smooth, glabrous, without veil remnants, cuticle not separable. Lamellae subadnexed, yellowish pale to dark brown-violaceous, with whitish edges. Stipe 35–50 × 1–4 mm, uniform or subbulbous, smooth above to subfloccose toward the base or the latter is smooth, whitish above to reddish brown or reddish black. Veil poor development. Context white and thick below pileus, yellowish and fibrous in stipe. The entire basidiome intensely bluing and becoming blackish. Dried specimens are black-chocolate.
Odor and taste slightly farinaceous.
Spore print unknown.
Basidiospores (6.5–)7–8(–9) × (4.5–)5–5.5(–6.5) × 4.5–5 μm, subrhomboid or ovoid in face-view, subellipsoid in side-view, thick-walled, wall 1–1.5 μm thick, yellowish brown, with a truncate germ pore at the apex and a short acute apiculus at the base. Basidia 20–25 × 6–7 μm, 4-spored, hyaline, ventricose- subcylindric or subclaviform, with a middle constriction. Pleurocystidia 12–18(–24) × 3.5–7 μm, rare or more or less common, hyaline, thin-walled, ventricose, mucronate to rostrate. Cheilocystidia 12–20(–28) × (4.5–)5–7 (–8) μm, hyaline, thin-walled, polymorphous, ventricose, mucronate or rostrate, sometimes with a long cylindric base, apex frequently and irregularly bifurcate or branched. Subhymenium subcellular, with hyaline elements to incrusted by yellowish brown pigment, also with blue-green pigment. hymenophoral Trama regular, with hyphae (2–)3–20(–25) μm wide, thin- or thick-walled, up to 0.8 μm thick, branched, hyaline. Pileipellis an ixocutis, 12–20 μm thick, with hyphae, 2–5 μm wide, hyaline, branched. Context subcellular, hyaline to pale brownish through the pileipellis, with hyphae 3–9(–23) μm wide, hyaline, some branched. Clamp connections present.
Habit, habitat and distribution — Solitary or gregarious, on grassy soil, below the shadow of trees, in an open subtropical forest, at 1500 m elevation. Known only from the type locality.
Additional material studied — THAILAND, Chiang Mai Prov., approximately 100 km from Chiang Mai, near Huai Nam Dang National Park, (19°16ʹN 98°16ʹE), elevation 1500 m, rainforest dominated by Pinus kesiya, July 12, 2010; Guzmán 38346 (MFLU-10-0801; XAL).
Discussion. Psilocybe thaicordispora belongs to sect. Cordisporae Guzmán because of its small spores, which are ovoid or subrhomboid in face-view, thick-walled and have a broad germ pore, as well as in its tropical habitat. It is somewhat similar to P. papuana Guzmán & E. Horak known only from Papua New Guinea, and also has polymorphous cheilocystidia, but these are wider, shorter and un-branched, (6.5–)10–18 × 6.5–13 μm, and apparently has no pleurocystidia (Guzmán & Horak 1978). Another similar species is P. dumontii Singer ex Guzmán known only from Panama, but this species has un-branched cheilocystidia which are not so variable in form, 10–18(–26) × 3–6(–8) μm, hyaline to somewhat brownish (Guzmán 1978, Guzmán & Piepenbring 2011).
Psilocybe thaiduplicatocystidiata Images Needed
◭ Differs from Psilocybe caerulescens in the possession of pleurocystidia, polymorphic cheilocystidia, and longer basidiospores.
Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai Prov., Chiang Mai University Park, 18°48ʹN 98°53ʹE, elevation 300 m, July 27, 2010, SC Karunarathna NTS-120 (holotype MFLU-10-0850, isotype XAL).
Etymology: The epithet refers to Thailand and the dimorphic pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia.
Pileus 20–40 mm diam., convex to subumbonate or subumbilicate, glabrous, smooth but margin slightly striate, also sometimes sub-lobulate, sub- hygrophanous, pale brown or brownish rose to brownish dull orange at the center, pale yellowish brown when dry, bluing to becoming irregularly blackish chocolate. Lamellae adnate to seceding, black-violaceous to blackish chocolate, with white edges. Stipe 45–75 × 4–6 mm, equal, subbulbous, probably with a pseudorhiza (not gathered), surface white to pale to dark reddish brown, or pale grayish brown when dry, smooth above to sub-floccose below, hollow to stuffed. Context white to pale rose, bluing. Odor and taste not checked when fresh, without any odor or taste in herbarium specimens, but the taste after some minutes is strongly pungent.
Spore print unknown.
Basidiospores 9–10(–11) × 6.5–7(–8) × 5.5–6.5 μm, subrhomboid or obscurely subovoid in face-view, subellipsoid in side-view, thick-walled, wall 1–1.5 μm thick, yellowish brown, with a truncate germ pore at the apex and a short acute apiculus at the base. Basidia 25–36 × 7–8(–9) μm, 4-spored, hyaline, ventricose-subcylindric or subclaviform, with a middle constriction, sterigmata up to 12 μm long. Pleurocystidia polymorphous, arising from the subhymenium, of two types: (A) 20–37(–44) × 7–9.5 μm, hyaline, ventricose- subcylindric, short rostrate or with a long narrow and cylindric neck, sometimes branched; (B) 22–29 × 10–15 μm, as pseudocystidia, hyaline or yellowish pale, subglobose, subfusiform or ovoid, thin-walled. Cheilocystidia polymorphous, of two types: (A) 16–22(–27) × 6.5–9.5 μm, fusiform, ventricose, rostrate, regular or irregularly, apex short or long, sometimes lobulate; (B) 18–24 × 9.5–13 μm, rare, as pseudocystidia, grayish, arising from the hymenophoral trama. Subhymenium thick, hyaline, subcellular, globose elements 5.5–13 (–20) μm wide. hymenophoral Trama regular, with hyaline to yellowish brown hyphae, 2–16 μm wide. Pileipellis subgelatinous, with hyaline hyphae, 2–4 μm wide. Context with hyaline to yellowish hyphae, 3.5–34 μm wide, thin-walled. Clamp connections present.
Habit, habitat and distribution — Gregarious, on soil with rotting dung, in an open grassland, at 300 m elevation. Known only from the type locality.
Discussion. Psilocybe thaiduplicatocystidiata with its small, subrhomboid, thick-walled spores is a special member of the sect. Cordisporae as it has two types of both pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia, one as pseudocystidia, a feature not previously observed on any species of sect. Cordisporae (Guzmán 1983, 1995). This species may also possess a pseudorhiza, but this was lost during picking. The basidiome is similar to P. caerulescens Murrill, but that species lacks pleurocystidia, the cheilocystidia are not polymorphous and its basidiospores are (6–)6.5–8(–8.5) μm long. P. thaiduplicatocystidiata is also similar to P. wrightii Guzmán, but the latter has simple pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia, and also smaller spores. These two similar species are only known from the neotropics.
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