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Species List: Striate-Plicate Cyathus spp. of the Tropics and Subtropics (376)
When: 1980-01-01
Observations: 75

Notes: This is a species list intended to make sense out of the many Cyathus spp. with the titular combination of features; features which represented the essential character of Cyathus sect. Eucyathus under Brodie’s classification system (Brodie 1975, 1984). Recent research de-emphasizes peridial striation/plication as a reliable infrageneric character (Zhao et. al., 2007) on the basis of discrepancies between Brodie’s seven, morphologically-derived groups and molecular data which supports a three-group system (ollum, pallidum, and striatum, respectively), for which basidiospore dimensions, exoperidium hairiness, and the shape of the base of the fruiting body are the key characters.

The presence or absence of striation/plication is nevertheless a diagnostic feature for Cyathus at the species level, and is still important when considering the average collector, whose attention to the most readily apparent traits will point him/her toward a limited number of Cyathus species featured in the average field guide. The overapplication of the name C. striatus — especially in tropical and subtropical areas where its occurrence is rare, unreported or suspect — is evidence of this.

Synonymy given for each species is a composite of data from both Index Fungorum and MycoBank. Revisions will be made periodically to reflect new findings.

Cyathus striatus (Huds.) ex Pers., Syn. Meth. Fung., 237, 1801

Peziza hirsuta Schaeff., Fungorum qui in Bavaria et Palatinatu circa Ratisbonam nascuntur Icones 4: 124, t. 178 (1774)
Peziza striata Huds., Flora anglica: 634 (1778)
Cyathus laevis Willd., Florae Berolinensis Prodromus: 399 (1787)
Nidularia striata (Huds.) Bull., Histoire des champignons de la France. I: 166, t. 40A (1791)
Cyathella striata (Huds.) Brot., Flora Lusitanica 2: 474 (1804)
Cyathia hirsuta (Schaeff.) V.S. White, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 29: 259 (1902)
Cyathus hirsutus (Schaeff.) Sacc., Sylloge Fungorum 17: 214 (1905)
=Peziza hirsuta Schrank, Baierische Flora 2: 625 (1789)

Etym. L. stria, furrow, ‘with fine ridges or grooves,’ with ref. to plicate peridium
Figures 1, 2, 41, 61a, etc. (Brodie, 1975)

“Fruit body commonly narrowly obconic but varying to widely obconic, commonly 7-10 mm high, and 6-8 mm wide but variable, usually with a slender base and flaring outwards in the upper third, provided with a distinct emplacement; colour some shade of brown, but varying from grey buff to deep chocolate brown or deep buff; externally covered with an irregular shaggy or woolly tomentum, often with some downward-pointing hairs; mouth, when young, provided with short but distinct setae; outside faintly to strongly plicate, inside markedly plicate and smooth, shiny; epiphragm distinct, persistent, usually white; peridioles about 2 mm, frequently roughly triangular and provided with a distinct pale tunica; spores clearly ellipsoid, slightly narrower at one end, 18-20 × 8-10 µ, thick-walled and provided with a notch or apiculus at one end.

The description given is intended to represent C. striatus as the author has seen it in many variations from many temperate regions. Lloyd (1906) distinguished two forms; the ‘type form’ from Europe, which he described as dark and having a pronounced tunica; and forma Schweinitzii Tul. from America, pale and with a much thinner tunica. I have seen both forms in Europe and in America and believe no such distinction as Lloyd’s is practicable. Many intergrading forms of C. striatus occur in North America alone. In eastern Canada (and the USA) a rather small pale form is common; in moist conifer forests of Alberta and British Columbia, a very tall dark-coloured form is prevalent (figure 41), similar to the prevalent form of Europe; in the prairie provinces of Canada and the central states of the United States, a large, rather wide, pale form is common. None of these or other forms that exist are really exclusively restricted to any area and cannot be recognized as geographical races.
This elegant fungus is very widespread in the temperate world. Lloyd recorded it only from Europe and America but I have in my collection specimens from India, Japan, China, and Mexico. Tai and Hung (1948) recorded it from Yunnan but with hesitation. I have not seen their material.
C. striatus fruits almost entirely in an open woodland on small twigs and woody leaf mould, although it is seen occasionally in gardens. In culture, dikaryon mycelium is coarse-textured and of a beautiful shade of golden brown. The species has been recorded to fruit in culture (Leininger, 1915).
Every student of plants should be required to study and sketch C. striatus for its beauty and for the fascination provided by its highly developed complex funicular apparatus." (Brodie, 1975)

The primarily temperate_C. striatus_ is frequently (and erroneously) listed in many (sub)tropical field guides as the only plicate-striate bird’s nest fungus of the region. Among the more likely identities for these fungi are, by region:

C. amazonicus, C. berkeleyanus, C. bulleri, C. costatus, C. gayanus, C. helenae, C. limbatus, C. montagnei, C. pedicellatus, C. poeppegii
C. chevalieri, C. crispus, C. ellipsoideus, C. limbatus, C. montagnei, C. poeppegii
C. badius, C. cheliensis, C. ellipsoideus, C. lijiangensis, C. limbatus, C. montagnei, C. poeppegii, C. renweii, C. subglobisporus
C. novae-zeelandiae, C. rudis

C. striatus is considered rare in the tropics (Trierveiler-Pereira & Baseia, 2013), and is possibly an introduced species (unpubl.).

Though there are significantly fewer plicate-striate Cyathus taxa to be considered in determining material from temperate regions, C. striatus is usually the only species with these characteristics listed in any field guide, despite the presence of at least two similarly styled species with overlapping distributions; C. helenae and C. annulatus. These three taxa are, according to Brodie (1975), separable on the basis of distribution and morphology.

Cyathus amazonicus Trierveiler-Pereira & Baseia, Mycotaxon 110: 74 (2009)

Etym. L. of the Amazon

“Peridium obconical to broad obconical, without stalk, 9-11 mm in height and 5-7 mm wide at the mouth, with a distinct reddish brown basal emplacement. Exoperidium finely plicate in the uppermost portions, very dark brown to grayish dark brown, hirsute; hairs yellowish brown, up to 1.5 mm long; mouth fimbriate. Endoperidium distinctly plicate, gray to brownish gray, smooth, shiny. Peridioles lentil-shaped, 2-3 × 1.7-2 mm, dark gray, shiny, 13-22 peridioles per basidiome; cortex composed of a single layer of hyphae, tunic thin, sub-colourless; funicular cord fibrous, yellowish white to bright yellow. Basidiospores subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, thick-walled, hyaline, smooth, 14-19 × 12-16 µm.
Substrate – undetermined decaying hardwood species.

Cyathus amazonicus is diagnosed by the large, dark, finely plicate peridium, large (~3 mm diam) peridioles, and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. It resembles C. helenae H.J. Brodie and C. lijiangensis T.X. Zhou & R.L. Zhao in basidiospore size and shape. The peridium morphology and larger peridioles differentiate these two species from C. amazonicus (see Table 1)." (Trierveiler-Pereira et. al., 2009)

Cyathus berkeleyanus (Tul.) Lloyd, Myc. Writ. 2, Nidulariaceae, p. 19, 1906

≡Cyathus microsporus var. berkeleyanus Tul. & C. Tul., Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 1: 73, tab. 6, fig. 6-8 (1844)
≡Cyathia berkleyana (Tul.) V.S. White, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 29: 258 (1902)

Etym. Named for M.J. Berkeley 1803-1889, famous British mycologist
Figures 44b, 61c (Brodie, 1975)

“Tulasne (1844) considered this species to be a variety of Cyathus microsporus. White (1902) and later Lloyd (1906) pointed out that C. berkeleyanus bears little resemblance to C. microsporus and should be held as a distinct species. The type collection was from Rio de Janiero, Brazil (Chas. Darwin) fide Lloyd.

No one writing about this species seems to have been aware of its great variability in size, colour, plication, and (to a lesser extent) spore size, or at least to have mentioned it. I found C. berkeleyanus repeatedly on bamboo pots in Jamaica, and, almost always, there seemed to be about four variants among the specimens of a single collection. This was so perpleing that I frequently resorted to sorting them out into different piles under a stereoscopic microscope, only to find that each pile, despite marked differences, could not be identified as any species other than C. berkeleyanus. That such variation in a collection from nature is not the result of several species growing in a proximity, is established by the fact that when ten soil-pot cultures — all subcultures of one dikaryon mycelium — fruited in the greenhouse, much the same degree of variation was observed.
In place of Tulasne’s description, the following is offered to cover the variation exhibited by this species and yet emphasize its salient characters

The fruit bodies (6-8 mm high, 4-6 mm wide) are rather broadly obconic when fresh, deep buff or sepia brown (dark reddish brown in the type) but usually fade markedly upon drying and frequently specimens in the same collection fade to different degrees. The outside is hirsute or shaggy when fresh but the tomentum is fragile, for almost all the loose hairs are easily rubbed off and old specimens appear smooth! The outside is strongly plicate, but in very wooly specimens the plication may not be evident. The inside is also plicate, but the degree of plication varies greatly from specimen to specimen and the inexperienced collector is very likely to place some specimens in the ;smooth; section of a key. In colour the inside is usually the same as the outside, but may be darker or lighter. Peridioles are dark brown in colour, 1.5-3 mm in diameter, commonly but not invariably elliptical and provided with a thin tunica. The cortex of the peridiole is composed of only one later (cf. C. poeppegii, C. limbatus, and other plicate species). Spores are small, mostly subglobose, and 6-9 × 4-7 µ in size.

Because the range of spore size of C. berkeleyanus overlaps that of C. pallidus, pale weakly plicate specimens of the former species are easily mistaken for dark forms of the latter, especially since both species have a one-layered cortex.
C. berkeleyanus is of widespread distribution in the tropics and often occurs in great abundance. It is also a very difficult species to recognize except by a process of elimination. I suspect that my own very extensive collections of this species are not all correctly identified. Intensive study of thi species, using new techniques such as scanning electron microcopy, may well reveal some reliable and constant character by which it should be characterized rather than those in use. A specimen carefully compared with the type and taxen as its equivalent is illustrated in figure 61c, right, wihle in figure 61c, left is shown a representative of a very common form of the species prevalent in the West Indies.
Specimens labelled C. berkeleyanus are known from almost all parts of the West Indies and from Florida, Cuba, Mexico, Bolivia, Brazil, and the Hawaiian Islands. It was reported from China by Teng (1935), but I have seen no material of this species from the eastern hemisphere. Dikaryon mycelium of C. berkeleyanus is white when freshly transferred and becomes only slightly off-white in age. It is fluffy, fine-textured, and slow-growing at room temperature. If the mycelium is of any value in species differentiation, then C. berkeleyanus is not closely related to C. striatus and C. poeppegii with which Lloyd associated it (Brodie, 1968), for both the latter species produce coarse, deeply pigmented mycelium." (Brodie 1975)

Cyathus bulleri Brodie, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 94: 68-71, 1967

Etym. Honouring Prof. A.H.R. Buller Figures 19, 61d

“’Peridium obconic with curved sides and abruptly narrowed at base, pale grey to linen colour; 5-9 mm high, 5-8 mm at mouth; externally covered with a fine tomentum and long connivent down-pointing hairs; externally strongly plicate in the upper third; internally plicate, silvery; lip smooth or minutely fimbriate. Emplacement small or lacking. Epiphragm snow-white, beset with fawn-coloured vertical tufts of hairs. Peridioles 2-2.5 mm in diameter with thick tunica, silvery when fresh, shiny and dark brown when old; cortex single. Spores variable, 5-8.5µm in diameter, spherical to subglobose, thick-walled’ (Brodie, 1967).

Because of its very pale colour and long external hairs, this species (figures 19, 61d) may in the past have been confused with C. pallidus. C. bulleri, however, is strongly plicate whereas C. pallidus is smooth or at least not regularly plicate. Moreover C. bulleri has an epiphragm beset with vertical tufts of brown hyphae whereas that of C. pallidus is snow white.
C. bulleri is the only known very pale, strongly plicate species known to occur in the tropics. Detailed comparison with other species may be found in Brodie (1967b). The species has been identified from the West Indies (the type is from Guadeloupe, Brodie, No 668oa), the Hawaiian Islands, and Mexico.
In culture, dikaryon mycelium is fine textured, remains almost snow-shite, and recalls that of C. berkeleyanus (Brodie 1970b). C. bulleri has been shown to fruit readily in pure culture (Brodie, 1970b)." (Brodie, 1975)

Cyathus costatus Lloyd ex H.J. Brodie, Nordic Jl Bot. 5(2): 201 (1985)

Etym. L. costatus, ‘ribbed,’ for the plicate peridia

“Peridium small, 3-5 mm high, 4-5 mm wide at the mouth, dark brown; shape obconic with strongly curved sides (crucibuliform) and at the base tapering abruptly to a short but distinct pedicel. Peridium externally woolly, covered with coarse hyphae aggregated into down-pointing tufts; peridium internally black, shiny. Peridium folded (plicate) in broad plications. Peridium at the mouth tending to split along the plications. Peridioles black, mostly small (0.5-1.0 mm). Tunica lacking. Cortex simple (one-layered), thick. Emplacement broad, byssoid but persistent. Spores large, variable 14-16 × 32-35 (40) µm. (Fig. 1A-C).
Habitat: known only growing on the dung of cows (and horses?) in tropical America.
Lloyd’s appropriate specific epithet costatus (= ribbed) is retained.

In their account of the Nidulariaceae of the West Indies, Brodie and Dennis (1954) included C. costatus but pointed out that this name required validation when additional material had been found.
There can be but little doubt that C. costatus is closely related to C. peoppigii (Fig. 1D) — a dark-brown plicate species which is very widely distributed in the American tropics, and elsewhere in tropical regions (Brodie, 1975). That C. poeppigii is a very different taxonomic entity from C. costatus, however, may be realized from Tab. 1, and from the photographs.
C. costatus is a very small fungus, restricted, as far as is known, to fruiting upon dung (mostly that of cows?). I do not suggest that C. costatus is exclusively coprophilous, for even the essentially coprophilous C. stercoreus occasionally fruits on garden soil which has been only very lightly enriched by manure. Even if C. costatus should be proven by further collecting, to be exclusively coprophilous I doubt that the restricted habitat could be advanced as the reason for considering that C. costatus is only a form of C. poeppigii which is small because of the influence of the dung substrate. Moreover, as I noted some years ago in my monograph (Brodie, 1975 p. 71) p. 171), C. poeppiggi is a remarkably constant species in all of its characteristics except spore size. This lack of variation I observed from 58 collections in my personal herbarium, in addition to material I have seen elsewhere. It should be noted also that I have never seen a specimen of C. poeppigii that grows on dung." (Brodie, 1985)

Cyathus gayanus Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. III, 1: 76-77, 1844

Etym. Named after the collector C. Gay
Figure 60d (Brodie, 1975)

“The salient features of this species, as paraphrased by Lloyd from Tulasne’s description, are as follows: Peridium about 1.5 cm high, 5-6 mm broad, narrow, conic, dark brown, striate within and faintly so without, strigose, hirsute. Peridioles black, large, 3 mm with thick outer wall. Spores subglobose, large, varying from 20 to 32 µ.

This species is readily recognized (figure 60d) by its unusually tall slender peridia which are plicate and dark brown, by its large peridioles, and by its large subglobose spores. For many years it was known only from Chile. Its presence was recorded in Costa Rica (Brodie, 1955) and in Jamaica (Brodie, 1967). I have recently seen one collection from Venezuela (N.Y.B.G. Herb.) which is less elongate than the type, but has the same large spores and peridioles, which are 3 mm or more in diameter." (Brodie, 1975)

Cyathus helenae Brodie, Can. J. Bot. 44: 1235, 1966

Etym. Named for Helen W. Brodie
Figure 61b (Brodie, 1975)

“Peridium obconic, thick, flaring outwards sharply in the upper third, 5-6 mm wide at the mouth, 7 mm high; outer surface pale brown to grey, covered with down-pointing hairs aggregated into nodules; inner surface grey, shiny, silvery, faintly but distinctly plicate; basal emplacement massive, wider than peridium; lip dark brown towards inside, minutely fimbriate but not setose; epiphragm white, thin; peridioles 2 mm in diameter, angular, with silvery tunics; cortex a single layer; spores ovoid to sphaeroidal,15-19 × 12-14 µ, slightly narrower at one end; spore wall mostly 1.5 µ thick, occasionally thicker.

The above description is slightly modified from the original. This beautiful little species is smaller than most forms of C. striatus and, as far as is known at present, is alpine and boreal in habitat except for collections from dry areas of Idaho. The type collection came from Rocky Mountain Park in Alberta, Canada.
Despite its resemblance to C. striatus, it is considered to be a distinct species for the following reasons. Morphologically C. helenae is quite distinctive in the presence of tufted tomentum, lack of setae, and faint plication. Ecologically C. helenae invades alpine regions, the far north and desert areas in northwestern America. Biochemically it is unique in the production of a series of diterpenoid substances not previously recognized by chemists (ref. Allbutt et al., 1971; Ayer and Taube, 1972; Ch. XB 1) . Biochemically it is also distinct from C. striatus in that the indolic substances produced by C. helenae form a chromatogram which is not the same as that produced by C. striatus (Johri and Brodie, 1971a and Ch. X, B 2). Perhaps arguing for conspecificity of the two entities is the partial fertility among haploid mycelia of C. helenae and C. striatus; this however is open to question (Olchowecki and Brodie, 1968). Mycelial mating between these two species (without, however, the production of fertile fruit bodies that would allow back-crossing to both parents), cannot be regarded as a sign of conspecificity. Even where some hybrid fertility exists, poor adaptation of hybrids (and their subsequent competitive exclusion) may be a valid reason for maintaining specific rank (see, Chapter 4, c4)." (Brodie, 1975)

The range for C. helenae was significantly extended to include three localities in Mexico, first in 1988 and again in 2005 (Gomez & Perez-Silva, 1988) (Herrera et. al., 2005). The habitats listed include both tropical and temperate forests.

Cyathus limbatus Tul., Ann. Sci, Nat. III, 1, 78: 1844.

Nidularia striata var. pusilla Berk., Ann. nat. Hist., Mag. Zool. Bot. Geol. 3: 397 (1839)
Cyathodes limbatum (Tul. & C. Tul.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 2: 851 (1891

Etym. L. limbatus, bordered (or fringed) Figure 60c

“Another widely distributed species in warm countries and one which often occurs in great abundance.

Cups dark brown, large, 7-10 mm high, 6-7 mm wide at the mouth, hirsute, outer and inner surfaces clearly plicate, the ridges wider apart (0.75-1 mm) than in C. poeppigii . Peridioles 2 mm or more wide, deep brown to black, shiny. Spores 15 x to µm in the type but 16-22 × 10-12 µm in other collections.

In general, this species resembles C. poeppigii but the cups of C. limbatus are usually broader for their height, the type (at least) is lighter brown, the cups are not so strongly plicate as those of C. poeppigii and the plications are coarser. C. limbatus often has a conspicuous emplacement.
The type came from British Guiana (Tulasne, 1844). Lloyd knew the species only from the West Indies but I have seen material from many parts of the world including China, India, Africa, South America, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Islands.
In culture (Brodie, 1968), dikaryon mycelium is fast-growing and glossy purple-brown, the reverse of cultures becoming almost black. Like C. poeppigii, this species has been observed to produce highly aberrant uni-peridiolar fruit bodies in some cultures (unpubl.)." (Brodie, 1975)

Also reported from Ecuador (Laessoe & Petersen, 2008) and Panama (Guzman & Piepenbring, 2011).

Cyathus montagnei

Cyathia montagnei (Tul. & C. Tul.) V.S. White, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 29: 262 (1902)
Nidularia byssiseda Jungh.
Cyathodes montagnei (Tul. & C. Tul.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 2: 851 (1891)
Cyathus montagnei subsp. brasiliensis (Speg.) Speg., Anal. Mus. nac. Hist. nat. B. Aires 6: 185 (1898) 1899
Cyathus montagnei subsp. montagnei Tul. & C. Tul., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 1: 70 (1844)
Cyathus montagnei var. brasiliensis Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 12(5): 244 (1881)
Cyathus montagnei var. montagnei Tul. & C. Tul., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 1: 70 (1844)

Etym. Named for Jean P. Montagne, outstanding French mycologist
Figures 44a, 61e (Brodie, 1975)

Fruit bodies rather short, 8-10 mm high, 8 mm broad at mouth, wide-flaring, dark brown, and hirsute. Tulasne described the colour as ferrugineous; actually fresh specimens are much darker (mahogany to chocolate brown) but tend to fade. The epiphragm is white and quite conspicuous. Outside, under the hairs, the walls are faintly plicate; on the inside the walls are clearly and rather widely plicate and lead-coloured or silvery. Peridioles (about 2 mm or more in diameter) are black, shiny, plump, and have a thin tunica. The cortex is apparently one-layered but subhomogeneous, so that it may at times be classed as two-layered. Spores are ellipsoid, 20 × 12 µ.

This species (figure 61e), which was long known only from Brazil, is apparently quite common in the West Indies and in Central America. Wolf (1949) reported it from Venezuela, Dissing and Lange (1962) from the Congo, and I have seen specimens from the Philippines and Thailand.
Dikaryon mycelium of this species (Brodie, 1968) is coarse-textured, pale buff when young, and bright intense brown when old. The mycelium bears a strong resemblance to that of C. striatus. " (Brodie 1975)

Cyathus pedicellatus H.J. Brodie, Can. J. Bot. 56(7): 732 (1978)

Etym. L. The specific name pedicellatus refers to the conspicuous pedicel which is the most outstanding feature of this species.

“Peridium very dark brown, obconic, flaring out widely towards the mouth and clearly constricted towards the base; 8-10 mm wide at the mouth, 10-12 mm high including the pedicellate portion; peridium wall thin. Pedicel very distinct, dark brown to black, firm textured, 2.5-3 mm long. Peridium externally hirsute and beset with elongate conical tufts of hairs. Peridium externally and internally clearly plicate, the plicae 0.75- 1 .00 mm wide. Mouth of peridium delicately fimbriate except for gaps in the line of the folds. Basal emplacement distinct, flattened globose, 2.5-3 mm wide. Peridioles 2.5 mm in width, circular in outline, wrinkled; tunica absent or very thin. Cortex double, but the two layers not distinguishable throughout; two layers taken together 200-240 µm wide. Spores variable, mostly ellipsoid, 12-14 µm wide, 24-27 pm long, thick walled.
HABITAT: on dead stems of unidentified wood; near Medellin, Colombia, at an elevation of about 2500 metres.
TYPE: No. CO-6349 in the Herbarium COL. (Colombia); K. P. Dumont et a/. collectors; near Medellin, Department of Antioquia, Colombia; altitude 2500 metres; 13 Aug. 1976 (Dumont No. CO-6349).
ISOTYPE: same collection data as for Type; in Herbarium NYBG (U.S.A.).
SYNTYPE: NO. CO-6413 in Herbarium NYBG (U.S.A.); K. P. Dumont et al, near Medellin Dep.
Antioquia, Colombia; altitude about 2500 metres;13 Aug. 1976 (Dumont No. CO-6413).

The structure, which above has been termed a pedicel, might be considered as merely a further develpoment of the tendency (occasionally observed in other species) for the lowermost portion of the peridium to become sufficiently slender and elongated that it virtually constitutes a stipe. As I have previously pointed out (Brodie 1975), it is not uncommon for some individual fruit bodies of Cyathus stercoreus (Schw.) de Toni to have long sleder basal portions. Moreover, some strains of this species in culture regularly produce fruit bodies most of which are very slende, and in a recent note, I drew attention (Brodie 1977) to a collection of naturally occurring specimens of C. stercoreus in whch the development of a ‘stipe’ as part of the peridium is very pronounced. However, in all other basic characters, C. stercoreus is completely different from C. pedicellatus and comparison of these two species on the basis of slender stipe becomes pointless.
The only other markedly slender-stemmed species is C. gracilis Brodie (Brodie 1973), which was described from the Philippine Islands. It has several features in common with C. pedicellatus: both species have thin walled dark brown peridia covered with elongate conical tufts of hairs (Figs. 1, 2, 4); both species have thick-walled spores, variable in size and shape, in the 10 × 20 µm size range; and both species have the lowermost portion of the peridium contracted into a slender stalk. Similarity ends abruptly at this point, however, because peridia of C. gracilis are nonplicate (occasionally faintly plicate internally), whereas peridia of C. pedicellatus are clearly deeply and broadly plicate, internally and externally (Figs 1, 4). Moreover, the slender stalk of C. gracilis is very much continuous with the upper broader part, differing chiefly in diamter. In C. pedicellatus, the slenderest part (pedicel) differs markedly in texture and colour from the wide cupulate part of the peridium (Fig. 1). In view of these latter striking differences, I believe that C. pedicellatus is not closely related to C. gracilis.
Cyathus pedicellatus is probably most properly associated taxonomically with C. limbatus Tul., the type material of which came from British Guiana (Brodie 1975). Closely related also is C. gayanus Tul., which resembles C. limbatus but has taller and more slender peridia and larger, more globose spores." (Brodie 1978)

Cyathus poeppigii (Tul. & C. Tul.) V.S. White, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 29: 258 (1902)

Cyathia poeppigii (Tul.) V.S. White, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 29: 258 (1902)
=Cyathus plicatulus Poepp.
=Nidularia plicata Fr., Linnaea 5: 553 (1830)
=Cyathus ambiguus Tul. & C. Tul., Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 1: 75 (1844)
=Cyathus sulcatus Kalchbr., Grevillea 10 (55): 107 (1882)

Etym. Named for ‘Poeppig,’ the collector
Figure 60a, b (Brodie, 1975)

“Fruit bodies reddish brown to dark brown, almost black in age, regular and rather narrowly obconic, felt or shaggy, 6-8 mm high and 6mm wide at the mouth. Both outer and inner surfaces deeply fluted or plicate, the plicae about -.5 mm apart (figure 60a, b) and fruit bodies in age often splitting along the folds. Peridia black and shiny, tunica absent. Spores mostly elliptical, very large, 30-42 × 20-28 µ, but variable.
One of the most widely distributed and easily recognized species in the tropics where it often grows in clustered masses on rotting wood and olf fibrous mats. Lloyd noted ‘it seems to replace C. striatus of temperate regions and to have very much the same habits.’
C. plicatulus is an unpublished name from Cuba and usually cited in synonymy. _Nidularia plicata?? Fries is probably a synonym (Palmer, 1961b).
C. poeppigii is of almost universal distribution in warm countries: West Indies (type from Cuba), South America, Hawaiian Islands, Asia, Africa, China, etc. In North America it has only been reported from Florida.
In culture (Brodie, 1968a), dikaryon mycelium of this species is coarse-textured and of an intense purple-brown colour. This species has also been observered (Brodie, 1955a) to produce remarkable aberrant fruit bodies from certain cultures.
.There is far less variability in this species than one tends to expect from a species of Cyathus of such common occurrence. The principal variation is in spore size; spores of C. poeppigii are always large and variable, but those from certain areas, notable the West Indies, are considerably smaller than those of other areas. When other characteristics are remarkably constant, the author does not feel that spore size ought to be unduly emphasized as a diagnostic feature of C. poeppigii.”

“This species has often been noted to have been labelled C. limbatus in herbaria. The latter, however, has considerably smaller spores and the plications are much coarser (see under C. limbatus). Attempts at various times to obtain union between monospore cultures of C. poeppegii and C. limbatus yielded negative results (unpubl.), which may be taken as a further indication that they are distinct species.” (Brodie, 1975)



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